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THOUGH Blessed Edmund Campion s Decent Ra- 
tiones has passed through forty-seven editions, 1 
printed in all parts of Europe; though it has 
awakened the enthusiasm of thousands ; though 
Mark Anthony Muret, one of the chief Catholic 
humanists of Campion s age, pronounced it to be 
" written by the finger of God," yet it is not an 
easy book for men of our generation to appreciate, 
and this precisely because it suited a bygone gen 
eration so exactly. Before it can be esteemed at 
its true value, some knowledge of the circum 
stances under which it was written, is indispen 

i . THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE Decent Rationes. 
The chief point to remember is that the Decem 
Rationes was the last and most deliberate free ut 
terance of Campion s ever-memorable mission. 
During the few months that mission lasted he suc 
ceeded in staying the full tide of victorious Pro 
testantism, which had hitherto been irresistible. 
The ancient Church had gone down before the new 
religion, at Elizabeth s accession twenty years be- 

1 Of these four are in English translations, dated 1606 (by 
Richard Stock), 1632, 1687, and 1827. The present translation 
is thus the fifth into Campion s mother tongue. Though each 
of the quaint old versions has its merits, and some do not lack 
charm, not one would adequately represent Campion to the 
modern reader. A new translation was a necessity may I not 
say, a most happy one seeing that Father Joseph Rickaby 
was at hand to satisfy it. [J.H.P.] 


fore, with an apparently final fall, and since then 
the Elizabethan Settlement had triumphed in 
every church, in every school and court. The 
new generation had been moulded by it; the old 
order seemed to be utterly prostrate, defeated and 
moribund. Nor was it only at home that Pro 
testantism talked of victory. In every neighbour 
ing land she had gained or was gaining the upper 
hand. She had crossed the Border and subdued 
Scotland, she held Ireland in an iron grip, she had 
set up a new throne in Holland, she had deeply 
divided France, and had learned how to paralyze 
the power of Spain. What could stay, her pro 

Then a new figure appeared, a fugitive flying be 
fore the law. He was hunted backwards and for 
wards across the country, every man s hand seemed 
against him. It was impossible to hold out for long 
against such immense odds, and he was in fact soon 
captured, mocked, maligned, sentenced and exe 
cuted with contumely. Yet Campion and his hand 
ful of followers had meanwhile succeeded in do 
ing what the whole nation, when united, had failed 
to do. He had evoked a spirit of faith and fer 
vour, against which the violence of Protestantism 
raged in vain. He had saved the beaten, shattered 
fragments of the ancient host, and animated them 
with invincible courage; and his work endured in 
spite of endless assaults and centuries of persecu 
tion. The Decem Rationes is Campion s har 
angue to those whom he called upon to follow him 
in the heroic struggle. 



Thus much for the inspiration and general sig 
nificance of Campion s work considered as a whole. 
It will also repay a much more minute study, and 
to appreciate it we must enter into further details. 

As to the man himself, suffice it to say that he 
was a Londoner; his father a publisher; his first 
school Christ s Hospital; that he was afterwards 
a Fellow of St. John s, Oxford, and held at the 
same time an exhibition from the Grocer s Com 
pany. At Oxford he accepted to some extent the 
Elizabethan Settlement of religion, but not suffi 
ciently to satisfy the Company of Grocers, who 
eventually withdrew their exhibition. This was a 
sign for further inquisitorial proceedings, which 
made him leave the University, and retire to Dub 
lin; but he was driven also thence by the zealots 
for Protestantism. Eventually he went over to the 
English College at Douay, whence he migrated to 
Rome, entered the Society of Jesus, and after eight 
years training had returned, a priest, to his native 
country, forty years old. His strong point was un 
doubtedly a singularly lovable character, and he 
possessed the gift of eloquence in no ordinary de 
gree. For the rest, his natural qualities and ac 
quired accomplishments were above the ordinary 
level, without reaching an extraordinary height. 
He was a man who never ceased working, and 
whose temper was always angelic, though he some 
times suffered from severe depression. He was 
adored by his pupils both at Oxford and in Bo 
hemia. His memory was always bright, and his 


conversation always sparkled with fresh thoughts 
and poetical ideas. He composed with extra 
ordinary facility in Latin prose and verse; but the 
extant fragments of these literary exercises do not 
strike us as being of unusual excellence, though 
genuinely admired in their day. He was certainly 
an ideal missioner: saintly, inspired, eloquent, un- 
tireable, patient, consumed with the desire for the 
success of his undertaking, and unfaltering in his 
faith that success would follow by the providential 
action of God, despite the obvious fact that all ap 
pearances were against him. 

Campion landed at Dover late in June, 1580, 
and reached London at the end of the month. 
There was an immediate rush to hear him, and 
Lord Paget was persuaded to lend his great hall 
at Paget House in Smithfield to accommodate a 
congregation for the feast of Saints Peter and Paul. 
The sermon was delivered on the text from the 
Gospel of the day, Tu es Christus, Filius Dei mm. 
The hall was filled, and the impression caused by 
the sermon was profound; but the number of 
hearers had been imprudently large. Though no 
arrests followed, the persecutors took the alarm, 
and increased their activity to such an extent that 
large gatherings had for ever to be abandoned; 
and after a couple of weeks both Campion and 
Persons left London to escape the notice of the 
pursuivants, whose raids and inquisitorial searches 
were making the lot of Catholics in town unbear 
able, whereas in the country the pursuit was far less 
active, and could be much more easily avoided. 


The two Fathers met for the last time at Hoxton, 
then a village outside London, to concert their plans 
for the next couple of months, and were on the 
point of starting, each for his own destination, when 
a Catholic of some note rode up from London. 
This was Thomas Pounde, of Belmont or Beaumont, 
near Bedhampton, a landed gentleman of means, 
an enthusiastic Catholic, and for the last five years 
or so a prisoner for religion. Mr. Pounde s mes 
sage in effect was this. " You are going into the 
proximate danger of capture, and if captured you 
must expect not justice, but every refinement of 
misrepresentation. You will be asked crooked 
questions, and your answers to them will be pub 
lished in some debased form. Be sure that what 
ever then comes through to the outer world will 
come out poisoned and perverted. Let me there 
fore urge you to write now, and to leave in safe 
custody, what you would wish to have published 
then, in case infamous rumours should be put about 
during your incarceration, rumours which you will 
then not be able to answer or to repudiate." Father 
Persons seems to have agreed at once. Campion 
at first raised objections, but soon, with his ever 
obliging temper, sat down at the end of the table 
and wrote off in half an hour an open letter To 
the Lords of Her Majesty s Privy Council, after 
wards so well known as Campion s Challenge. 


Campion, after finishing his letter and taking 
a copy for himself, had consigned the other copy 


to Piounde. Persons had done the same; but 
whereas the latter took the precaution to seal his 
letter, Campion had handed over his unfastened. 
Then the company broke up. Persons made a wide 
circle from Northampton round to Gloucester, while 
Campion made a smaller circle from Oxfordshire 
up to Northampton. When they got back to town 
in September, they found all the world discussing 
" the Challenge." What had happened was that 
proceedings had been taken by the Ecclesiastical 
Commission against Pounde, and he had been com 
mitted to solitary confinement in the ruinous castle 
of Bishop s Stortford. Before he left London he 
began to communicate the letter to others, lest it 
should be altogether lost, and as soon as it was 
thus published it attracted everyone s attention, and 
his adversaries had ironically christened it the chal 
lenge. The word was indeed one which Campion 
had used, but he had employed it precisely in order 
to avoid any charge that might have arisen, of being 
combative and presumptuous. 

Thus in the course of three months Campion, as 
it were in spite of himself, had filled England with 
his name and with the message he had come to 
announce, and he had reduced his adversaries to 
a very ridiculous position. They had been dared 
to meet him in disputation, and this they feared 
to do. In effect, they in their thousands were hid 
ing their heads in the sand, while their constables 
and pursuivants were raiding the houses of 
Catholics on every side in hopes of catching the 
homeless wanderer, and of stopping his mouth by 


violence. The pulpits, of course, rang with outcries 
against the newcomer, and in his absence his doc 
trines were rent and scofled at; but, as Campion 
said in a contemporary letter, " The people here 
upon is ours, and the error of spreading that letter 
abroad hath done us much good." This was the 
first popular success which the Catholics had scored 
for years ; and after so many years of oppression 
some popular success was of immense importance to 
the cause. Father Persons, in a contemporary, 
letter, says that the Government found that there 
were 50,000 more recusants that autumn than they 
had known of before. The number is, of course, 
a round one, and is possibly much exaggerated, but 
it gives the Catholic leader s view of the advantage 
won at this time. 

We may now turn to The Challenge itself, the 
only piece of Campion s English during this his 
golden period, which has survived. 



Whereas I have come out of Germanie and 
Boemeland, being sent by my Superiors, and ad 
ventured myself into this noble Realm, my deare 
Countrie, for the glorie of God and benefit of souls, 
I thought it like enough that, in this busie watchful 
and suspicious worlde, I should either sooner or later 
be intercepted and stopped of my course. Where 
fore, providing for all events, and uncertaine what 
may become of me, when God shall haply deliver 
my body into durance, I supposed it needful to put 
this writing in a readiness, desiringe your good Lord 
ships to give it ye reading, for to know my cause. 


This doing I trust I shall ease you of some labour. 
For that which otherwise you must have sought for 
by practice of wit, I do now lay into your hands by 
plaine confession. And to ye intent that the whole 
matter may be conceived in order, and so the better 
both understood and remembered, I make thereof 
these ix points or articles, directly, truly and reso-< 
lutely opening my full enterprise and purpose. 

i. I confesse that I am (albeit unworthie) a priest 
of ye Catholike Church, and through ye great mercie 
of God vowed now these viii years into the Religion 
of the Societie of Jhesus. Hereby I have taken 
upon me a special kind of warfare under the banner 
of obedience, and eke resigned all my interest or 
possibilitie of wealth, honour, pleasure, and other 
worldlie felicitie. 

ii. At the voice of our General Provost, which is 
to me a warrant from heaven, and Oracle of Christ, 
I tooke my voyage from Prage to Rome (where our 
said General Father is always resident) and from 
Rome to England 1 , as I might and would have done 
joyously into any part of Christendome or Heathen 
esse, had I been thereto assigned. 

iii. My charge is, of free cost to preach the Gos 
pel, to minister the Sacraments, to instruct the sim 
ple, to reforme sinners, to confute errors in brief, 
to crie alarme spiritual against foul vice and proud 
ignorance, wherewith many my dear Countrymen are 

iv. I never had mind, and am strictly forbidden by 
our Father that sent me, to deal in any respect with 
matter of State or Policy of this realm; as things 
which appertain not to my vocation, and from which 
I do gladly restrain and sequester my thoughts. 
V v. I do ask, to the glory of God, with all humility, 
and under your correction, iii sortes of indifferent 
and quiet audiences: the first before your Honours, 
wherein I will discourse of religion, so far as it 


toucheth the common weale and your nobilities : the 
second; whereof I make more account, before the 
Doctors and Masters and chosen men of both Uni 
versities, wherein I undertake to avow the faith of 
our Catholike Church by proofs innumerable, Scrip 
tures, Councils, Fathers, History, natural and moral 
reasons : the third before the lawyers, spiritual and 
temporal, wherein I will justify the said faith by the 
common wisdom of the laws standing yet in force 
and practice. 

vi. I would be loth to speak anything that might 
sound of any insolent brag or challenge, especially 
being now as a dead man to this world and willing 
to put my head under every man s foot, and to kiss 
the ground they tread upon. Yet have I such a 
courage in avouching the Majesty of Jhesus my King, 
and such affiance in his gracious favour, and such 
assurance in my quarrel, and my evidence so impreg 
nable, and because I know perfectly that no one Pro 
testant, nor all the Protestants living, nor any sect 
of our adversaries (howsoever they face men down in 
pulpits, and overrule us in their kingdom of gram 
marians and unlearned ears) 1 can maintain their doc 
trine in disputation,, rl am to sue most humbly and 
instantly for the combat with all and every of them, 
and the most principal that may be found: protest 
ing that in this trial the better furnished they come, 
the better welcome they shall be.\ 

vii. And because it hath pleased God to enrich 
the Queen my Sovereign Ladye with notable gifts of 
nature, learning, and princely education, I do verily 
trust that if her Highness would vouchsafe her royal 
person and good attention to such a conference as, 
in the ii part of my fifth article I have motioned, or 
to a few sermons, which in her or your hearing^ I am 

1 The meaning is " The ministers tyrannize over us, as 
if we were a kingdom of unlearned schoolboys listening to 
a teacher of grammar." 


to utter, such manifest and fair light by good 
method and plain dealing may be cast upon these 
controversies, that possibly her zeal of truth and love 
of her people shall incline her noble Grace to dis 
favour some proceedings hurtful to the Realm, and 
procure towards us oppressed more equitie. 

viii. Moreover I doubt not but you her Highness 
Council being of such wisdom and discreet in cases 
most important, when you shall have heard these 
questions of religion opened faithfully, which many 
times by our adversaries are huddled up and con 
founded, will see upon what substantial grounds 
our Catholike Faith is builded, how feeble that side 
is which by sway of the time prevaileth against us, 
and so at last for your own souls, and for many 
thousand souls that depend upon your government, 
will discountenance error when it is bewrayed, and 
hearken to those who would spend the best blood in 
their bodies for your salvation. Many innocent 
hands are lifted up to heaven for you daily by those 
English students, whose posteritie shall never die, 
which beyond seas gathering virtue and sufficient 
knowledge for the purpose, are determined never to 
give you over, but either to win you heaven, or to 
die upon your pikes. (And touching our Societie be 
it known to you that we have made a league all the 
Jesuits in the world, whose succession and multitude 
must overreach all the practices of England cheer 
fully to carry the cross you shall lay upon us, and 
never to despair your recovery, while we have a 
man left to enjoy your Tyburn, or to be racked 
with your torments, or consumed with your prisons. 
The expense is reckoned, the enterprise is begun ; it 
is of God, it cannot be withstood. So the faith was 
planted: so it must be restored \ 

^ix. If these my offers be refused, and my en 
deavours can take no place, and I, having run thous 
ands of miles to do you good, shall be rewarded 


with rigour, I have no more to say but to recom 
mend your case and mine to Almightie God, the 
Searcher of Hearts, who send us His grace, and 
set us at accord before the day of payment, to the 
end we may at last be friends in heaven, when all 
injuries shall be forgotten. 

" Direct, true, and resolute," Campion s words 
certainly are, and they are calculated in a remark 
able degree to reassure and animate his fellow 
Catholics and their friends, and it is for them in 
reality, rather than for the Lords of the Council, 
that the message is composed. If the composition 
has a fault it is its combativeness ; and in effect, 
though this drawback was not felt at the time, 
it was later. Subsequent missionaries found it 
best to adopt a policy of far greater secrecy and 
silence. If, however, we remember that Campion 
intended his paper to be published under quite 
different circumstances, we can see that he at least 
hardly deserves the reproach of being contentious, 
or if he does, his failing was venial when we con 
sider the tastes of the age. The immediate result 
of the publication was without question a great 


Like a wise general, Father Persons at once be 
thought himself how best to follow up the good 
beginning already made. Accordingly, when he 
and Campion met at Uxbridge (for it was not safe 
for Campion to come to London), he suggested that 
the latter, seeing that his memory was still green 
at Oxford, should compose a short address on the 


crisis to the students of the two Universities. 
Campion met the suggestion as he had met the sug 
gestion of Pounde, with a gentle disclaimer, 
" alleging divers difficulties," but soon good- 
humouredly assented on the condition (not a usual 
one with literary men) that someone else should 
propose the subject. The company therefore made 
various suggestions, none of which met with 
general acceptance, until Campion proposed 
" Hereby in Despair." " Whereat," adds Persons, 
" all that were present could not choose but laugh, 
and wonder to see him fall upon that argument at 
such a time when heresy seemed most of all to 
triumph." In truth, with England invincible at 
sea and on land, and the absolute sway of Eliza 
beth, Cecil, and Walsingham over both Church and 
State, what more hopeful position for Protestant 
ism could have been imagined? Campion s mean 
ing, of course, was that Protestantism was in 
despair of holding the position of the ancient 
Church ; of ruling in the hearts of a free people ; of 
co-existing with Christian liberty. It was un 
worthy, therefore, of the acceptance of minds that 
aspired to mental freedom, as did the youth of the 
Universities. This subject for an address was wel 
comed with acclamation, and Campion promised 
to undertake it, suggesting on his side that Persons 
should arrange ways and means for printing the 
tract when finished, and any other which might 
seem needed. 

This agreed to, all separated once more, and 
Campion rode northwards on a tour which he took in 


Derbyshire, Yorkshire,, and Lancashire, and which 
was not over for six months. Meantime Father 
Persons had set up his " magic press " near London, 
and issued from it five volumes of small size in 
deed, but of remarkable vigour and merit. As 
soon as any notable attack was made on the 
Catholics, an answer was brought out in a wonder 
fully short time, and these answers were pithy, 
vigorous, and pointed, in no ordinary degree. 
When one remembers how much co-operation is 
needed to bring out even the slightest volume, one 
is truly astonished at the feat of bringing out so 
many and such good ones, while the hourly fear 
of capture, torture, and death hung over the heads 
of all. When threatened with danger in one place 
the press was bodily transported to another. 

However, our business at present is not with Per 
sons, but with Campion. His book was finished 
and sent up to Persons in March, 1581, with a 
title altered to suit the controversy which had al 
ready begun. It was now Decem Rationes: qui- 
bus fretus, certamen adversariis obtulit in causa 
Fidei, Edmundus Campianus &c. " Ten Reasons, 
for the confidence with which Edmund Campion 
offered his adversaries to dispute on behalf of the 
Faith, set before the famous men of our Universi 
ties." Persons was charmed, as he had expected 
to be, with its literary grace. It was in Latin, as 
had been agreed, and Campion s Latin prose, 
(though critics of our time find it somewhat silvery 
and Livian), suited the tastes of that day to per 
fection. The only thing which made Persons at 


all thoughtful was the number of references. Cam 
pion declared that he was sure he had verified them, 
as he entered them in his notebook, but Persons, 
with greater caution, declared that they must be 
verified anew. 

The difficulty of this for men living under the 
ban, and cut off from access to large libraries, was 
of course great, but through the help of others, 
especially through Mr. Thomas Fitzherbert of 
Swynnerton, the task was happily accomplished. 
Campion came up from the north to Stonor, on the 
Oxfordshire border where the secret press then 
was ; and there, amid a thousand fears, alarms and 
dangers, the book was printed. 


Of the actual preparations for printing the Ten 
Reasons, Persons gives this account in his Me 
moirs 1 :- 

Persons was of opinion that Campion should come 
up to London immediately after Easter [March 26th] 
to examine the passages quoted, and to assist the 
print. Meanwhile Persons began to prepare new 
means of printing, making use of friends and in par 
ticular of a certain priest called William Morris, a 
learned and resourceful man, who afterwards died in 
Rome. 2 This was necessary, as the first press near Lon 
don, where the first two books had been printed, had 
been taken down. Eventually and with very great diffi 
culty he found, after much trying, a house belonging 

1 Catholic Record Society IV., 14-17. 

2 Father Bombino calls him Richard Morris, and says he 
went into exile and lived with Allen first at Rheims, and 
afterwards at Rome, where he died in the English College. 
(Vita Campiani, p. 139). 


to a widow, by name Lady Stonor, in which she was 
not living at that time. It was situated in the 
middle of a wood, twenty miles from London. 

To this house were taken all things necessary, that 
is, type, press, paper, &c., though not without many 
risks. Mr. Stephen Brinkley, a gentleman of high 
attainments both in literature and in virtue, super 
intended the printing. Father Campion then coming 
to London, with his book already revised, went at 
once to the house in the wood, where the book was 
printed and eventually published. Persons too went 
down to stay with him for some days to take counsel 
on their affairs. 

Stonor Park, to which Campion and Persons had 
betaken themselves, 1 is still in the possession of 
the old Catholic family of that name, of which 
Lord Camoys is the representative. Father Mor 
ris says that " the printing, according to the tradi 
tions of the place, was carried on in the attics of 
the old house." 2 Being near Henley it was pos 
sible to go there by road or by water, and one 
might come and go on the Oxford high-road with 
out attracting attention. 

Still there was grave risk of discovery from the 
noise made by the press, and from the number of 
extra men about the house, as to the fidelity of 
each of whom it was impossible to be absolutely 

1 Father Morris identified the lady who let or lent Stonor 
Park, with Dame Cecilia Stonor, daughter of Leonard Cham 
berlain. Father Persons describes her as a widow, and if so, 
the Sir Francis, then alive, was not her husband, but her son. 
Both father and son had the same Christian name. 

2 On the other hand, Mr. Thomas Edward Stonor, in a 
correspondence to be mentioned immediately, says that there 
were no definite traditions as to the actual locality of the 


sure. Day by day the dangers thickened round 
them. One evening, soon after their arrival, Wil 
liam Hartley, a priest and afterwards a martyr, who 
was helping in the work, and had then just come 
back from a visit to Oxford, mentioned casually 
that Roland Jenks, the Catholic stationer and book 
binder there, was again in trouble, having been 
accused by his own servant. Jenks was doubtless 
known to all Oxford men, indeed but three years 
before his name had been noised all over Europe. 
He had been sentenced to have his ears cut off for 
some religious offence, when the Judge was taken 
ill in the court itself, and, the infection travelling 
with marvellous rapidity, the greater part both of 
the bench and of the jury were stricken down with 
gaol fever, and two judges, twelve justices, and 
other high officials, almost the whole jury, and 
many others, died within the space of two days. 1 
In mentioning Jenks s new troubles Hartley pro 
bably did not realize the extent of the danger to 
the whole party which they portended. Persons 
had in fact employed the very servant who had 
now turned traitor, to bind a number of books for 
him at his house near Bridewell Church, London, 
which with all its contents was thus in a perilous 
condition. Early next morning an express mes 
senger was sent in to town with orders to hide or 
destroy Persons papers and other effects. It was 
already too late: that very night the house had 
been searched, and Persons letters, books, vest 
ments, rosaries, pictures, and other pious objects, 
1 Challoner, Missionary Priests, Introd. p. 12. 


had all fallen into the hands of the pursuivants. 
Worse still, Father Alexander Briant, afterwards a 
martyr, and one of the brightest and most lovable 
of the missionaries, was seized next door, and hur 
ried off first to the Counter, then to the Tower, 
where he was repeatedly and most cruelly racked 
to make him say where Persons might be found. 

Information about his torture was brought to the 
Jesuits at Stonor, and one can easily see how grave 
and disturbing such bad news must have been. 
" For almost the whole of one night," says Per 
sons, " Campion and I sat up talking of what we 
had better do, if we should fall into their hands. 
A fate which befell him soon after." 

The Registers of the Privy Council inform us 
that their Lordships gave orders to have Jenks sent 
up to London on the 28th of April. This settles 
approximately the date of the beginning of the 
printing at Stonor, and the book was not finished 
till nearly the end of June. So the work lasted 
about nine weeks, a fairly long period when we con 
sider the smallness of the Latin book, here repro 
duced. It will, however, be shown from intrinsic 
evidence, that the stock of type was very small. 
The printers had to set up a few pages at a time, to 
correct them at once, and to print off, before they 
could go any further. Then they distributed the 
type, and began again. When all was finished they 
rapidly stabbed and bound their sheets. Con 
sidering the fewness of the workmen 1 and the un- 

1 As five printers were subsequently arrested, we know 
their names, and they deserve to be recorded here, viz., 
Stephen Brinkley, John Harris, John Hervey, John Tuker, 
John Compton. Allen speaks of seven workmen. Diary of 
the Tower and Douay Diary. 


foreseen delays which so often occur during print 
ing, the time taken over the production does npt 
seem extraordinary. 

For many years no example of the original 
edition of the Decem Rationes was known to exist : 
none of our great public libraries in London or at 
the Universities possesses a copy. But it was the 
singular good fortune of the late Marquess of Bute 
to pick up two copies of this extremely rare volume, 
and he munificently presented one of them to 
Stonyhurst College. Canon Gunning of Winchester 
is the happy owner of a third copy. By the courtesy 
of the Rector of Stonyhurst, I am able to offer 
a minute description of the precious little book. 

The volume is, considering the printing of that 
time, distinctly well got up. There is nothing at 
first sight to suggest that its publication had been 
a matter of so much difficulty and danger ; but when 
one scrutinizes every page with care, one finds that 
it bears about it some traces of the unusual circum 
stances under which it was produced. 

If we look first for the water-mark in the paper 
we shall find that it is the pot the ordinary Eng 
lish sign ; a proof, if one were needed, that the book 
was really printed in this country. The sheets run 
from A to K (with prefixed J), in fours, i6mo; 
the folios are 44, of which 39 are numbered (but 
by accident the pagination is omitted from I to 4, 
and 40 is blank as well as the fly-leaves). 

Let us think of what this means. Eleven signa 
tures for 44 folios, i6mo, means that only eight 


pages i6mo went into each printing frame, or, in 
other words, that the frame was so small that it 
would have been covered by half a folio sheet, 9 by 
13 inches. They probably printed off each little 
sheet by itself, for if they had had a larger frame 
so as to print an entire folio sheet then we should 
have found in the finished book that the water 
mark would recur once in each sixteen pages. In 
point of fact, however, it only recurs irregularly in 
the first, fifth, and tenth gathering. This could not 
have occurred unless the sheets used were of half 
folio size. 

A Greek fount was evidently wanting. Cam 
pion was fond, after the fashion of scholars of that 
day, of throwing into his Latin letters a word or 
two of Greek, which in his autograph are written, 
as Mr. Simpson has remarked, with the facility of 
one familiar with the language. Here on fol. 24 a 
we find adynata, where aSvvara would have been 
in Campion s epistolary manner. Again, on fol. 4 b 
he quotes, " Hie calix novum testamentum in san 
guine meo, qui (calix) pro vobis fundetur," and 
in the margin Poterion Ekchynomenon, in Italics, 
where Greek script, if obtainable, would obviously 
have been preferred. A further indication of the 
difficulties under which type had been procured is 
seen in the use of a query sign of a black-letter 
fount (*..,;) instead of the Roman fount i.e.,?). 
This will be the more readily comprehended when 
we remember that Father Persons books, which 
Brinkley had printed before, were in English, and 


that English prose was then still generally printed 
in Gothic character. 1 

So Persons also made use of it in order that 
there might be nothing in his books to strike the 
eye as unusual in books of that class. Campion s 
volume on the other hand being in Latin, it was 
necessary to procure a new set of " Roman " type. 
The use of the black-letter query-signs would not 
at once attract attention, so they were kept, though 
all else was changed. 

A further trace of the difficulty in finding type 
is found in the signs for a, e, diphthong. 

This combination recurred very frequently in 
Latin, and the printers had very few of them. Very 
soon after starting we find them substituting for 
Roman an Italic diphthong, <^, also o, e (ce), and 
even e, an ordinary mediaeval form of the sign. 
It will be noticed that these substitutions become 
increasingly frequent, as we approach fol. 12 (end 
of signature c), fol. 32 (end of signature H), and 
36 (end of signature i ), whereas as soon as the next 
signature begins the fount of se is ready to hand 
again. The conclusion to be deduced is that 
leaves C, H, and I were each printed off, and the 
type distributed, before the setting up of D, I, and K 
could be proceeded with. This illustrates what has 
been said before .of the very small stock of type in 
the printing establishment. 

Another slight peculiarity ought perhaps to be 

1 The custom however was already changing, and " RO-* 
man " type soon afterwards came into general use. 


noticed: it is the accentuation of the Latin. Ad 
verbs, for instance, are generally accented on the 
last syllable, e.g., dociiiks, facile, qudm, eo, quo : the 
rule, however, is by no means regularly kept. But 
this has evidently nothing to do with the peculiar 
conditions under which Campion s book was pro 
duced, and is to be accounted for by the use of 
accents in other publications of the same class. 
Nothing was then definitely settled about the accen 
tuation of either French, Italian, or Latin, and 
Campion s volume does but reproduce the un 
certainty on the matter which was everywhere 

Whilst the printers were contending with the dif 
ficulties arising from the smallness of their stock 
of type, difficulties which no doubt caused vexatious 
and dangerous delays, Campion and Persons re 
sumed their missionary labours with vigour. In his 
Memoirs Persons writes: 

Whilst the preparations were being made Campion 
preached unweariedly, sometimes in London, some 
times making excursions. There was one place [that 
of the Bellamy s] whither we often went, about five 
miles from London, called Harohill. In going thither 
we had to pass through Tyburn. But Campion 
would always pass bareheaded, and making a deep 
bow, both because of the sign of the Cross, and in 
honour of some martyrs who had suffered there, and 
also because he used to say that he would have his 
combat there. 1 

1 Memoirs, i. cap. 24; Collectanea P. fol. 155. 


Father Bombino 1 managed to find out some 
further details. Mrs. Bellamy s house, he tells 
us, had a good library, and as to Campion s con 
duct at Tyburn, he explains that the shape of the 
gallows was a triangle, supported at its three an 
gles by three baulks of timber; the tie-beams, 
however, suggested to Campion the Cross of 

From the State Papers we hear of other families 
and places said to have been visited by Campion 
at this period: the Prices, of Huntingdon; Mr. 
William Griffith, of Uxbridge ; Mr. Edwin East, 
of Bledlow, Bucks; Lady Babington, at Twyford, 
Bucks; Mr. Dormer, at Wynge, and Mrs. Pollard. 2 

In spite of alarms, dangers, and interruptions, 
the work of printing was concluded without mis 
hap. The method of publication was singular. 

1 Bombino, Vita Campiani 1620, p. 136. Some of Born- 
bino s additions are not, perhaps, arranged in their true 
chronological order. He tells us, for instance, a propos of 
Brinkley s difficulties in getting printers, that he had to 
dress them, and give them horses to ride, like gentlemen. 
But he does not make it clear whether these were the men 
who printed the Ten Reasons, or Persons previous works. 
Bombino says that Brinkley paid for the type, &c., but Allen, 
in a contemporary letter, says that George Gilbert had left 
a fund for these purposes. Bombino says the printing of the 
Decem Rationes was commenced at Brinkley s own house 
at Green Street, and had to be removed because one of the 
servants was arrested in London, and tortured to make him 
confess, which he heroically refused. Campion and Persona 
knowing of the torture, not of the man s constancy, at once 
removed the press. But Persons Memoirs ascribes this 
incident to an earlier period. (Domestical Difficulties, p. 
119; Autobiography for 1581). 

2 Simpson, p. 217, following Lansdowne MSS. xxx. 78. 


Hartley took the bulk of the copies to Oxford, where 
the chief academical display of the year, the Act, 
as it was called, was taking place in St. Mary s, 
on several successive days. Hartley, coming in at 
the end of the first day, waited for every one to 
go out, then slipped his little books under the 
papers left on the seats, and was gone. Next morn 
ing he entered with the rest, and soon saw that his 
plan had been perfectly successful. The public 
disputation began, but the attention of the audi 
ence was elsewhere. There was whispering and 
comparing notes, and passing about of little books, 
and as soon as the seance was over, open discussion 
of Campion s " Reasons." Hartley did not wait 
for more, but rode back to Stonor with the news 
that the book had surely hit its mark. 

At Oxford, as Father Persons says, many re 
membered and loved the man, or at least knew 
of his gentle character, and of the career he had 
abandoned to become a Catholic missionary. The 
book recalled all this ; and to those who were able 
to enter into its spirit it preached with a strange 
penetrating force. By all the lovers of classical 
Latin, and there were many such at that day, it 
was read greedily. The Catholics and lovers of 
the old Faith received it with enthusiasm, but a 
stili more valid testimony to its power was given 
by the Protestant Government, which gave orders 
to its placemen that they should elaborate replies. 
These replies drew forth answers from the Cath 
olics, and the controversy lasted for several years. 
Mr. Simpson has included an outline of this con- 


troversy in his Life of Campion, and to it I may 
refer my readers, having nothing substantial to 
add to his account. 


It would not be necessary for me to say more 
about its success, except that to us nowadays, the 
Rationes will not seem at all so remarkable as it 
did to our ancestors. Religious controversy, in 
itself, does not much interest us moderns; and 
those who will read Latin merely to enjoy the style 
are very few. But in the sixteenth century, as Sir 
Arthur Helps truly says, men found in rhe thrill 
of controversy the interest they now take in novels. 
At that time, too, of all literary charms, that of 
good Latin prose was by far the most popular, and 
the language was still the " lingua franca " of the 
learned all the world over. Once we get so far as 
to appreciate that both subject and style were in 
its favour, the popularity of the volume will seem 
natural enough, for it is bright, pointed, strong, 
full of matter, bold, eloquent, convincing. 

Without attempting anything like a complete 
account of the reception of the book by the pub 
lic, I may mention as the most obvious proof of its 
popularity, that more strenuous endeavours were 
made (so far as I can discover) to answer it than 
were made in the case of any other assault upon :he 
Elizabethan religious settlement. Lord Burgh- 
ley himself, the chief minister of the Crovn, 
called upon the Bishop of London, perhaps the most 
forward man then on the episcopal bench, to i;se 


all endeavours to ensure the publication of a suf- 
ficent answer. Finally they appointed the Regius 
Professors of Divinity both at Oxford and at Cam 
bridge to provide for the occasion, and it took 
both of these a long series of months to propound 
their answers to Campion s tract, which is only as 
long as a magazine article. Speaking broadly, we 
may say that this was the most that Elizabeth s 
Establishment could do officially ; and besides this, 
there were sermons innumerable, and pamphlets 
not a few by lesser men, as well as disputations in 
the Tower, of which more must be said later. 

This hostile evidence is so striking and so ample 
that it might seem unnecessary to allege more, but 
I attach a great deal more importance to the praise 
of theologians of Campion s own faith: for, in 
the first place this is much harder to obtain than 
the attention of the persons attacked. Secondly, 
those who are acquainted with Catholic theological 
criticism are at first surprised to find what very 
severe critics Catholic theologians are one of 
another. In this case, where the writer had from 
the nature of his task to make so much use of rhe 
torical arguments, allusions, irony, and unusual 
forms of expression, there was more than usual 
chance of fault being found, especially as every 
possible thorny subject is introduced somehow, and 
that in terms meant to please not Roman theolo 
gians, but Oxford students. Evidently there was 
danger here that critics should or might be severe, 
or at least insist on certain changes and emenda 
tions. In fact the work was received with joy, and 


reprinted frequently and with honour. I have lately 
found a letter in its commendation from the Car 
dinal Secretary of State of that day, and Muret, as 
we have heard, perhaps the greatest humanist then 
living in the Catholic ranks, described it as " Libel- 
lum aureum, vere digit o Dei scriptum." 


The publication of the Decem Rationes was the 
last act of Campion s life of freedom. He was 
seized the very next week, and after five months 
of suffering was martyred on i December, 1581. 
During that prolonged and unequal struggle 
against every variety of craft and violence the Ten 
Reasons continued to have their influence, and on 
the whole they were extremely helpful, for they 
enabled the martyr to recover some ground which 
he had lost while under torture. During those 
awful agonies he confessed to having found shelter 
in the houses of certain gentlemen. It is certain 
that these names were all known to the Government 
before, and that he was not betraying any secret. 
Nevertheless the gentlemen in question were at once 
seized, imprisoned and fined, on the alleged evi 
dence of Campion s confessions only. This of 
course caused much scandal among Catholics, and 
so long as he lay lost in the Tower dungeons, un 
pleasant rumours about his constancy could not be 
effectively contradicted. Thus far Elizabeth s 
ministers had gained an advantage, which Pounde 
had foretold they were likely to win. But the 
remedy he had suggested also proved effective. 


Though under ordinary circumstances Eliza 
beth s ministers " meant nothing less " than hav 
ing the disputation requested, nevertheless now 
that Campion was so terribly shaken and reduced, 
they hoped that they might arrange some sort of a 
meeting, which might in show correspond with what 
had been demanded in the Decem Rationes, and yet 
leave them with a certain victory. They were em 
boldened too, by finding that their prisoner was not 
after all, such a particularly learned man. He had 
never been a professor of theology, or written or 
made special studies, beyond the ordinary course 
which in those days was not a long one. It was, 
therefore, settled that four disputations should be 
held in the Tower of London. Theology was still 
taught at Oxford and Cambridge in something of 
the old mediaeval method and in syllogistic form. 
The men who were pitted against Campion had 
lately been, or were still, examiners at the Univer 
sities. Nor is it to be denied for a moment that 
they did their work well. The attack never fal 
tered. Their own side quite believed they had 
won. The method they adopted was this. They as 
sumed the role of examiners, and starting with the 
Decem Rationes before them, they plied Campion 
with crabbed texts, and obscure quotations from the 
Fathers. Then they cut short his answers, and as 
soon as one had examined for one quarter of an 
hour, another took his place, for they were anxious 
above all things to avoid defeat. The number 
of topics broached and left unsettled surpasses be 
lief, indeed the scene was one of utter confusion, 


taunts, scoldings, sneers a very, very different test 
from the academic argumentation, which Campion 
had requested. 

The martyr did not show any remarkable eru 
dition, indeed all opportunity to do so was carefully 
shut off. No University, I fancy, would have given 
him a chair of theology on the strength of his re 
plies on that occasion. There was more than one 
premature assertion of victory on the Protestant 
side. But when the Catholic and Protestant ac 
counts are compared, one sees that the advantages 
won against Campion were slight. They evidently 
hoped that by vigorous and repeated attacks they 
would at last puzzle or bear him down. But they 
were never near this. He was always fresh and 
gay, never in difficulties, or at the end of his tether. 
He stands out quite the noblest, the most sympa 
thetic and important figure in those motley assem 
blies. The Catholics were delighted. They suc 
ceeded in getting their own report of the disputa 
tions, which is still extant, and they would have 
printed it, if they had been able. Philip, Earl of 
Arundel, by far the most important convert of that 
generation, was won over by what he heard in those 

On the whole then we must say that, if Campion 
did not come off gloriously, he at least acquitted 
himself well and honourably, and distinctly gained 
by the conflict. Offers of disputation were not the 
ideal way of forwarding a mission such as his. 
Nevertheless, in his case, despite circumstances the 
most adverse, the result had proved advantageous. 


It had greatly strengthened and encouraged his 
own followers, and that was in reality the best 
that could then be expected. Incidentally too the 
adverse rumours, which had gained ground during 
his seclusion, were dissipated. It was clear that, 
though he might have been deceived, his constancy 
was unconquerable. 

Thus Campion s Challenge and his Ten Reasons 
not only contain the message of his mission enun 
ciated with characteristic eloquence, but the de 
livery of each message is an history-making event, 
big with dramatic consequences. The controversy 
about his book did not die with him, but continued 
for some years, until it was merged into the 
standing controversy between the two religions. 
We cannot describe it here. 

Suffice it to say that Mr. Simpson, in the Appen 
dix to his Edmund Campion enumerates not less 
than twenty works, which appeared in those contro 
versies between 1581 and 1585. The chief de 
fender of Father (Campion s writings was Father 
Robert Drury, S.J., but all his biographers also 
have something to say on the subject. The chief 
opponents are William Charke, Meredith Hanmer, 
William Fulke, Laurence Humphrey, William 
Whitaker, R. Stoke, John Field, Alexander No well, 
and William Day. Some further information on 
the whole subject may be found in articles by the 
late Father Morris and myself in The "Month for 
July 1889, January 1905, and January 1910. 








Quandoquidem, viri ornatissimi, a Germania et 
Bohemia revocatus, non sine ingenti vitae meae 
periculo, in hoc florentissimum Angliae regnum, 
dulcissimam patriam meam, tandem aliquando per- 
veni, pro Superiorum meorum voluntate, Dei glor- 
iam et animarum salutem promoturus ; verisimile 
esse putavi, me turbulento hoc, suspicioso ac diffi- 
cillimo tempore, sive citius, sive aliquanto tardius, 
in medio cursu abreptum iri. Quapropter ignarus 
quid de me futurum sit, quum Dei permissu in 
carceres et vincula forte detrudendus sim, ad om- 
nem eventum scriptum hoc condidi: quod ut le- 
gere, et ex eo causam meam cognoscere velitis, 
etiam atque etiam rogo. Fiet enim, ut hac re non 
parvo labore liberemini, dum quod multis ambag- 
ibus inquirere vos audio, id totum aperta confes- 
sione libere expromo. Atque ut rem omnem, quo 

1 A Beato Edmundo anglice scripta, ab alio latine reddita. 


melius et intelligi, et memoria comprehend! queat, 
compendio tradam, in novem omnino capita earn 

1. Profiteer me, quamvis indignum, Ecclesiae 
Catholicae sacerdotem, et iam octo abhinc annis 
magna Dei misericordia in Societatem nominis lesu 
cooptatum, peculiare quoddam belli genus sub obe- 
dientiae vexillo suscepisse ; ac simul me omni divi- 
tiarum, honorum et aliorum huiusmodi bonorum 
spe, et habendi potestate, abdicasse. 

2. Generalis Praepositi nostri decreto (quod ego 
tamquam mandatum coelitus missum, et a Christo 
ipso sancitum veneror), Praga Romam, ubi Gene 
ralis nostri perpetua sedes est; Roma deinde in 
Angliam contendi: qua animi alacritate etiam in 
quamcumque aliam orbis terrarum partem, sive ad 
christianos, sive ad infideles, profectus fuissem, si 
me ad earn profectionem superiores mei designas- 

3. Negotium mihi commisum tale est, ut gratis 
Evangelium administrem, rudes in fide instituam, 
flagitiosos a scelere ad meliorem vitae rationem 
traducam, errores convellam; et, ut summatim 
omnia complectar, pugnae spiritualis signum tuba 
canam, atque alacriter adversus foeda flagitia et 
superbam ignorationem, qua innumeri cives mei, 
quos intimis animi visceribus complector, oppressi 
iacent, depugnem. 

4. Numquam mihi animus fuit, imo et a Pa- 
tribus, qui me miserunt, severe prohibitum mihi 
est, ut ne reipublicae ac politicae huius regni ad- 
ministrationis negotiis me immisceam: nam et 


aliena haec sunt a vocationis meae institute, et 
iis animum cogitationesque meas libenter avoco. 

5 . Quamobrem vestra dementia f retus, ad glor- 
iam Dei tria non minus aequa, quam ab omni pacis 
et tranquillitatis reipublicae perturbatione aliena, 
concedi mihi et permitti humillime postulo. Pri- 
mum est, ut Dominationes vestrae, pro sua et rei 
publicae dignitate, me pro religione disserentem 
audire non graventur. Alterum, quod et cumpri- 
mis desidero, et maximi momenti esse arbitror, ut 
mihi liceat in consessu doctorum, magistorum et 
utriusque Academiae virorum insignium, sacro- 
sanctae theologiae professorum, verba facere. 
Promitto me catholicae Ecclesiae fidem invictis ra- 
tionibus et sacrarum Scripturarum, Conciliorurn, 
Patrum atque historiarum auctoritate, ac denique 
ex ipsa turn naturali, turn morali philosophia effica- 
citer demonstraturum et defensurum. Tertium, ut 
audiar ab utriusque iuris, sive canonici, sive civilis, 
peritis, quibus eamdem fidei veritatem, legum, quae 
etiamnum vigent, testimonio atque auctoritate com- 

6. Nollem equidem quidquam proferre, quod 
insolentem provocationem aut arrogantiam aliquam 
prae se ferret; quum et mundo mortuus iam sim, 
et ex "animo paratus promtusque, ut me ad cuiusvis 
pedes abiiciam ac vestigia etiam exosculer. Tantus 
tamen animus mihi est pro gloria et maiestate Regis 
mei lesu amplificanda, tanta in eius favore fiducia, 
tanta denique in causae aequitate et firmissimorum 
argumentorum ac probationum robore confidentia, 
(quum certo sciam nullum protestantium, nee om- 


nes simul iunctos, nee ullam adversariorum factio- 
nem, quantumvis imperitam multitudinem et gram- 
maticos quosdam adolescentulos, apud quos insig- 
niter debacchantur, in error em inducant, posse dog 
mata sua disputatione aut tueri aut probare) ; ut 
cum illis omnibus, vel cum eorum quolibet, vel cum 
antesignanis ex omni illorum numero delectis, ultro 
me offeram congressurum ; bona fide protestans eo 
mihi gratius fore certamen, quo melius instruct! 

7. Et quoniam Dominus Deus Dominam meam 
reginam, eximiis naturae, eruditionis ac regiae edu- 
cationis dotibus exornare voluit, si sua Maiestas 
huiusmodi auditionem, qualem in quinto articulo 
secundo loco efflagitavi, sua regali praesentia et be- 
nigna attentione cohonestare dignaretur, sperarem 
sane, me articulos controversos optima methodo et 
perspicuis argumentis ita illustrare, atque ab omni 
bus fallaciarum involucris quibus constricti sunt, 
explicare posse, ut zelo veritatis et amore, quo sua 
Maiestas populum complectitur, mediocriter eius 
animum inclinarem, quum ad plurimas res, quae 
regno suo non parum detrimenti afferunt, damnan- 
das et reiiciendas, turn ad nos catholicos, misere 
iamdiu oppresses, maiore aequitate prosequendos. 

8. Neque vero dubium mihi est quin vos, orna- 
tissimi consiliari S. M., quum in maximi momenti 
negotiis praeclare ac sapienter agere soleatis, ubi 
has de fide controversias, quas adversarii nostri non 
sine fuco et confuse plerumque pertractant, bona 
fide delectas et fuco nudatas perspexeritis, luce 
meridiana clarius cognituri sitis, quam solidis et 



firmis fundamentis fides catholica nitatur. Et quia 
e contrario protestantium argumenta sunt omnino 
frivola et infirma, quae temporis iniquitate vim 
aliquam contra nos habere putantur; futurum 
spero, ut vestrarum animarum et innumerabilium 
aliarum, quae a vestro nutu et exemplo pendent, 
miserti, ab huiusmodi falsorum dogmatum archi- 
tectis et doctoribus f acies vestras animumque ipsum 
avertatis, ac nobis, qui vitam nostram pro vestra 
salute alacriter profundere parati sumus, aequiori 
et magis propitia mente auscultetis. Multae inno- 
centes manus quotidie et sine intermissione pro vo- 
bis in coelum attolluntur. Haec in vos studia sunt 
eorum Anglorum, qui in provinciis transmarinis 
numquam interiturae posteritatis patres, virtuti et 
eruditioni adquirendae dant operam; omninoque 
secum statuerunt, a salute vestra promovenda non 
prius absistere, quam vel animas vestras Christo 
lucrifecerint, vel lanceis vestras confixi generose 
occubuerint. Et quidem quod ad Societatem nos 
tram attinet, velim sciatis, omnes nos, qui sumus 
de Societate lesu, per totum terrarum orbem longe 
lateque diffusi, (quorum continua successio et mul 
titude omnes machinationes vestras anglicas facile 
superabit), sanctum foedus iniisse ut cruces, quas 
nobis iniicietis, magno animo feramus, neque 
umquam de vestra salute desperemus, quamdiu vel 
unus quispiam e nobis supererit, qui Tiburno 1 vestro 
fruatur, atque suppliciis vestris excarnificari, car- 
ceribusque squalere et consumi possit. lampridem 
inita ratio est, divinique numinis auspicio incho- 
1 Est hie locus supplicii anglice Tyburn. 


atum certamen; nulla vis, nullus impetus adver- 
sariorum superabit. Hac ratione consita et tradita 
olim fides est, eadem in pristinam dignitatem re- 
vocari et restitui debet. 

Quod si hoc scriptum meum, quod offero, re- 
iicitur, nee benevoli conatus mei quidquam possint 
efficere, et pro itinere multorum millium milliarium 
vestri causa suscepto, ingratum animum experiar; 
id unum agendum mihi supererit, ut vos causamque 
meam Deo scrutatori cordium commendem: quern 
quidem ex animo precor, ut nobis tantisper gratiam 
suam impertiri velit, qua ante extremum remuner- 
ationis diem in unam sententiam conspiremus; et 
ut tandem aliquando in coelo, ubi nulla erit iniu- 
riarum memoria, amicitia sempiterna perfruamur. 



Anno praeterito, quum ex institute vitae meae 
iussus in hanc insulam remeassem, clarissimi viri, 
offendi sane fluctus baud paulo saeviores in angli- 
cano littore, quani quos in oceano brittannico recens 
a tergo reliqueram. Mox interiorem in Angliam 
ubi penetrassem, nihil familiarius, quam inusitata 
supplicia; nihil certius, quam incerta pericula. 
Collegi me, ut potui, memor causae, memor tern- 
porum. Ac ne prius forte corriperer, quam auditus 
a quopiam fuissem, scripto protinus mandavi con- 
silium meum, qui venissem, quid quaererem, quod 
bellum, et quibus, indicere cogitarem Autographum 


apud me habui, ut mecum, si caperer, caperetur; 
exemplum eius apud amicum deposui, quod, me 
quidem nesciente, pluribus communicatum est. Ad- 
versarii publicatam schedulam atrociter acceperunt 
quum caetera, turn illud invidiosissime criminantes, 
quod unus omnibus in hoc religionis negotio certa- 
men obtulissem; quamquam solus non eram futu- 
rus, si fide publica disputassem. Responderunt 
postulatis meis Hammerus et Charcus. Quid tan 
dem? Otiose omnia. Nullum enim responsum, 
praeter unum, honeste dabunt, quod numquam da- 
tmnt: " Conditiones amplectimur, Regina spondet, 
.advola." Interea clamant isti: * Sodalitium tuum, 
seditiones tuas, arrogantiam tuam, proditorem, sine 
dubio proditorem." Ridicule. Operam et oleum 
et famam homines non insipientissimi cur profun- 

Verum his duobus, (quorum prior animi causa 
meam chartam delegit, in quam incurrerat; alter 
malitiosius totam rem convolvit), praebitus nuper 
est libellus admodum luculentus, qui quantum op- 
ortuit, tantum et de Societate nostra, et de horum 
iniuriis, et de provincia, quam sustinemus, edisserit. 
Mihi supererat, (quoniam, ut video, tormenta, non 
scholas, parant antistites), rationem facti mei vobis 
ut probarem ; capita rerum, quae mihi tantum fiden- 
tiae pepererunt, quasi digito fontes ostenderem. 
Vos etiam hortarer, quorum interest praeter caete- 
ros, incumbatis in hanc curam, quam a vobis Chris- 
tus, Ecclesia, respublica et vestra salus exigunt. 
Ego si fretus ingenio, litteris, arte, lectione, mem- 
oria, peritissimum quemque adversarium provocavi 


fui vanissimus et superbissimus, qui neque me, 
neque illos inspexerim; sin causam intuitus, exist- 
imavi satis me valentem esse, qui docerem hunc 
solem meridie lucere, debetis mihi fervorem istum 
concedere, quern honor lesu Christi, Regis mei, et 
invicta veritas imperarunt. Scitis M. Tullium in 
Quintiana, quum Roscius victoriam adpromitteret, 
si efficeret argumentis, septingenta millia passuum 
non esse decursa biduo, non modo nihil veritum 
articulos et nervos Hortensii, sed ne grandiores 
quidem Hortensio, Phillipos, et Cottas, et Antonios, 
et Grasses, quibus maximam dicendi gloriam trib- 
uebat, metuere potuisse. Est enim quaedam veritas 
tarn illustris et perspicua, ut earn nullae verborum 
rerumque praestigiae possint obruere. Porro liqui- 
dius est quod nos agimus, quam ilia f uit hypothesis 
Rosciana. Nam si hoc praestitero: coelos esse, 
divos esse, fidem esse, Christum esse, causam obti- 
nui. Hie ego non sim animosus? Equidem occidi 
possum, superari non possum, iis enim Doctoribus 
insisto, quos ille Spiritus erudiit, qui nee fallitur, 
nee vincitur. 

Quaeso a vobis ut salvi esse velitis. A quibus 
hoc impetraro, reliqua minime dubitanter expecto. 
Date modo vos huic sollicitudini, Christum obtes- 
tamini, industriam adiungite ; profecto sentietis id, 
quod res est, et adversaries desperare, et nos, tarn 
solide fundatos, quieto magnoque animo hanc are- 
nam expetere oportere. Brevior hie sum, quod 
reliquo sermone vos alloquor. Valete. 



Ego dabo vobis os et sapientiam, cut non pote- 
runt resistere et contradicere omnes adversarii ve- 
stri. Luc. xxi. 15. 

Rationum capita. 

1. Sacrae Litterae. 

2. Sacrarum Litterarum sententia. 

3. Natura Ecclesiae. 

4. Concilia. 

5. Patres. 

6. Firmamenta Patrum. 

7. Historia. 

8. Paradoxa. 

9. Sophismata. 

10. Omne genus testium. 


Quum multa sunt, quae adversariorum diffiden- 
tiam in causa loquuntur, turn nihil aeque atque 
sanctorum maiestas Bibliorum foedissime violata. 
Etenim qui, posteaquam reliquorum testium voces 
et suffragia contempserunt, eo sunt redacti nihilo 
secius, ut stare nequeant, nisi divinis ipsis codicibus 
vim et manus intulerint; ii se profecto declarant 
extrema fortuna confligere, et rebus iam desperatis 
ac perditis, experiri durissima velle atque ultima. 


Manicheis 1 quid causae fuit, ut " Evangelium 
Matthei et Acta refigerent Apostolica? " Desper- 
atio. His enim voluminibus cruciabantur, et qui 
Christum negaverant prognatum de Virgine, et qui 
Spiritum christianis turn primo coelitus illapsum 
finxerant quum ipsorum Paracletus, Persa nequissi- 
mus, erupisset. Quid Ebioniis, 2 ut omnes Pauli re- 
pudiarent epistolas? Desperatio. His enim suam 
dignitatiem retinentibus, antiquata circumcisio est, 
quam isti revocaverant. Quid Luthero 3 ut Epis- 
tolam lacobi " contentiosam, tumidam, aridum, 
stramineam," flagitiosus apostata nominaret, et 
" indignam spiritu censeret apostolico? " Desper 
atio. Hoc enim scripto confessus miser atque dis- 
ruptus est, quum " in sola fide iustitiam, constitu- 
eret." Quid Lutheri catulis, ut Tobiam, Ecclesias- 
ticum, Machabaeos, et horum odio complures alios 
eadem calumnia comprehensos, e sincero canone 
repente dispungerent? Desperatio. His enim ora- 
culis disertissime coarguuntur, quoties de angel- 
orum patrocinio, quoties de arbitrii libertate, quoties 
de fidelibus vita defunctis, quoties de Divorum 
hominum intercessione disputant. 

Itane vero? Tantum perversitatis, tantum auda- 
ciae? Quum Ecclesiam, concilia, cathedras, Pa- 
tres, martyres, imperia, populos, leges, academias, 
historias, omnia vetustatis et sanctitatis vestigia 
oonculcassent, scripto Dei verbo tantum controver- 

1 Aug. 1. 28 contra Faust, c. 2 et de utilit. cred. c. 3. 

2 Iren. 1. i, c. 26. 

3 Lut. in novo test, german.; Praef. in ep. lac.; vide 
etiam 1. de capt. Babyl. cap. de extr. unct. et cent, Magd. 

2 p. 58. 


sias velle dirimere proclamassent, illud ipsum ver- 
bum, quod solum restiterat, exsectis e toto corpore 
tarn multis, tarn bonis, tarn speciosis, partibus, de- 
lumbasse? Septem enim ipsos de veteri Testamen- 
to 1 codices, ut minuta dissimulem, calviniani prae- 
ciderunt; lutherani vero etiam epistolam lacobi, 
et huius invidia quinque alias ; 2 de quibus aliquan- 
do fuerat et alicubi controversum. His quoque 
libellum Estheris et tria capita Danielis adnumer- 
ant novissimi Genuenses; quae quidem Ana- 
baptistae, istorum condiscipuli, iam pridem damna- 
verant atque deriserant. 

Quanto modestius Augustinus, 3 qui sacrosanctum 
catalogum pertexens, non sibi neque alphabetum 
hebraicum, ut ludaei; neque privatum spiritum, ut 
Sectarii, pro regula posuit; sed ilium Spiritum, 
quo totum corpus Ecclesiae Christus animat. 
Quae quidem Ecclesia custos huius depositi, non 
magistra, quod haeretici cavillantur, thesaurum 
hunc universum quern Tridentina 4 Synodus est am- 
plexa, vetustissimis olim conciliis publicitus vin- 
dicavit. Idem Augustinus, 5 de una Scripturarum 
particula speciatim disserens, inducere in animum 
non potest, librum Sapientiae, qui iam turn Eccle 
siae calculo, temporum serie, priscorum testimonio 
instinctione fidelium, ut firmus et canonicus robur 
obtinuerat, cuiusquam temeritate vel susurro ex- 

1 Ii sunt Baruch, Tobias, ludith, Sapientia, Ecclesiast., 
duo Machab. 

2 Ep. ad Hebr., Ep. ludae, Ep. 2 Petri, Epist. 2 et 3 

8 De doctr. christ. 1. 2 c. 3. 

4 Cone. Trid. sess. 4; vid. Melch. Can. 1. 2 de loc, theol. 

5 De praedest, sanct. c. 14. 


trudi extra canonem oportere. Quid ille nunc di- 
ceret, si viveret in terris, et Lutheros Calvinosque 
concerneret opifices bibliorum, qui sua lima politula 
et elegantula vetus novumque Testamentum rase- 
rint; neque Sapientiam tantum, sed et alia per- 
multa de canonicorum librorum ordine segregave- 
rint: ut quidquid ex horum officina non prodierit, 
illud ad omnibus phrenetico decreto tamquam 
incultum et horridum conspuatur? 

Ad hoc tarn dirum et exsecrabile perfugium qui 
descenderunt, ii certe licet in ore suorum assecla- 
rum volitent, sacerdotia nundinentur declamitent 
in concione, ferrum in catholicos, equuleum cru- 
cemque consciscant; tamen victi, abiecti, squalidi, 
prostrati sunt : quandoquidem arrepta virgula cen- 
soria, veluti arbitri sedentes honorarii, divinas ipsas 
tabulas, si quae ad stomachum non fecissent, obli- 
terant. Ecquis est vel mediocriter institutus, qui 
talium cuniculos hostium reformidet? Qui ho 
mines quamprimum in corona vestra, eruditorum 
hominum, ad eiusmodi veteratorias artes, tamquam 
ad familiarem daemonem currerent, non aurium 
convicio sed strepitu pedum exciperentur. Quaere- 
rem ab eis, verbi gratia, quo iure corpus biblicum 
detruncent atque diripiant? Respondent: non se 
veras Scripturas exscindere, sed excernere suppo- 
sititias. Quo iudice? Spiritu sancto. Hoc enim 
responsum a Calvino 1 praescribitur, ut Ecclesiae 
iudicium, quo spiritus examinantur, subterfugiat. 
Cur igitur alios alii lancinatis, quum omnes eodem 
Spiritu gloriemini? 

1 Instit. I. lib. I, c. 7, num. 4 et 5. 


Calvinianorum spiritus recipit sex epistolas, quae 
spiritui non placent lutherano ; f reti tamen uterque 
sancto Spiritu. Anabaptistae historiam lobi fabu- 
lam 1 appellant, tragicis et comicis legibus intermix- 
tam. Qui sciunt? Spiritu docente. Castalio 2 
mysticum illud Salomonis Canticum, quod ut para- 
disum animae, ut manna reconditum, ut opiparas in 
Christo delicias catholici admirantur, nihilo pluris 
quam cantilenam de anicula, et cum pedissequis 
aulae colloquium amatorium venereus f urcifer aest- 
imavit. Vnde hausit?. A spiritu. In Apocalypsi 
loannis, cuius omnes apices excelsum aliquid et 
magnificum sonare confirmat Hieronymus, 3 tamen 
Lutherus 4 et Brentius et Kemnitius quiddam, nescio 
quid, difficiles aristarchi desiderant; eo scilicet 
propendentes, ut exautoretur. Quern percontati? 
Spiritum. Quatuor Evangelia fervore praepostero 
Lutherus 5 inter se committit, et prioribus tribus 
Epistolas Pauli longe praeferens, * unicum " dein- 
ceps * Evangelium loannis, pulchrum, verum, prae- 
cipuum " decernit esse nominandum; quippe qui, 
quod in ipso fuit, libenter etiam Apostolos suarum 
rixarum socios adscripsisset. Quo doctore? Spi 
ritu. Quin etiam iste fraterculus 6 non dubitavit 
Evangelium Lucae petulanti stylo perstringere, 
quod in eo crebrius bona nobis virtutum opera 

1 Xistus Sen. 1. 8, haer. 10. 

2 Praef . in Cant. Vide Bezam in sua praef. ante comm. 
Calv. in losue. 

3 Epist. ad Paulinum. 

4 Lut. praef. in Apoc. Kemn. in exam. Cone. Trid. 
sess. 4. 

5 Praef. in nov. Test. 

6 Lut. serm. de Pharis. et Publ. 


commendentur. Quern interrogavit? Spiritum. 
Theodorus Beza ex Lucae vigesimo secundo capite : 
" Hie calix, novum testamentum, in meo sanguine, 
qui (calix) pro vobis fundetur, Trorrfpiov eV%wo- 
fjuevov," ausus est ut corruptum vitiatumque tradu- 
cere, quod haec oratio nullam expositionem, nisi 
de vino calicis converse in verum Christi sangui- 
nem, patiatur. Quis indicavit? Spiritus. Den- 
ique quum omnia credant suo quisque spiritui, no- 
men sancti Spiritus horribili blasphemia mentiun- 
tur. Qui sic agunt, nonne se produnt? Nonne 
facile refutantur? Nonne in concessu talium viro- 
rum, quales estis Academici, tenentur ac minimo 
negotio constringuntur? Cum his ego timeam pro 
fide catholica disputare, qui pessima fide voces non 
humanas, sed aethereas tractavere? 

Nihil !hic dlco, quae vertendo perverterint quam- 
vis intolerabilia sint, quae accusem. Gregorio 
Martino, scientissimo linguarum, collegae meo, qui 
doctius et plenius hoc praestabit, nihil praeripio, 
nee aliis, quibus id laboris esse iam prae manibus 
intellexi. Facinorosius crimen est ac tetrius, quod 
nunc persequor. Inventos esse doctorculos, qui 
temulento quodam impetu in coeleste chirographum 
involarint ; idipsum pluribus locis, ut maculatum, ut 
mancum, ut f alsum, ut subreptitium condemnarint ; 
eius partes aliquas correxerint, aliquas corroserint, 
aliquas evulserint. Hinc omne propugnaculum, quo 
muniebatur, in lutheranos spiritus, tamquam in 
valla phantasmatum pictosque parietes commu- 
tarint; ne prorsus obmutescerent, quum in Scrip- 
turas, erroribus suis infestas, impingerent, quas 


nihilo commodius expedire, quam sorbere favil- 
las, aut saxa mandere, potuissent. 

Haec ergo mihi prima ratio vehemens et iusta 
fuit quae ubi partes adversarias umbraticas et frac- 
tas ostendisset, animum sane addidit viro et christi- 
ano et in his studiis exercitato, pro sempiterni Re 
gis diplomate adversus reliquias profligatorum hos- 
tium decertandi. 


Alterum est, quod me quidem ad congressum 
incitarit, et riorum apud me copiolas elevarit, ad- 
versarii perpetuum in Scripturis exponendis ingen- 
ium, plenum fraudis, inane prudentiae. Statim 
haec, philosophi, tangeretis. Itaque vos auditores 

Sciscitemur ab adversariis, exempli gratia, quid- 
nam sequuti novam sectam intriverint, qua Christus 
excluditur e coena mystica? Si nominant Evange- 
lium, accurrimus. A nobis verba sunt: 1 " Hoc est 
corpus meum. Hie est calix meus." Qui sermo 
visus est ipsi Luthero 2 tarn potens, ut quum etiam 
discuperet fieri Zuinglianus, quod ea re plurimum 
incommodare Pontifici potuisset, captus tamen et 
victus apertissimo contextu, cederet; neque minus 
invitus Christum vere praesentem in Sacramento 
sanctissimo fateretur, quam olim daemones, victi 
miraculis, Christum Dei Filium vociferati sunt. 3 

1 Matth. xxvi. 26; Marc. xiv. 22; Luc. xxii. 19. 

2 In epist. ad Argent. 

3 Matth. viii. 29; Marc. i. 24. 


Agedum, pagella scripta superiores sumus ; de sen- 
tentia script! contenditur. Hanc pervestigemus ex 
verbis adiacentibus : l "Corpus meum, quod pro 
vobis tradetur. Sanguis meus, qui pro multis ef- 
fundetur." Adhuc durissimae partes Calvini sunt, 
nostrae faciles et explicatae. Quid amplius? Con- 
ferte Scripturas, inquiunt. Conspirant Evangelia, 2 
Paulus adstipulatur ; voces, clausulae, tota connexio 
panem, vinum, insigne miraculum, coeleste pabu 
lum, carnem, corpus, sanguinem, reverenter inge- 
minant. Nihil aenigmaticum, nihil offusum cali- 
gine loquendi. 

Tamen perstant adversarii, neque finem faciunt 
altercandi. Quid agimus? Opinor, audiatur anti- 
quitas ; et quod nos alteris alteri suspecti non pos- 
sumus, illud omnium saeculorum veneranda canities, 
Christo propior, ab hac lite remotior, decidat ar- 
bitrio. Non ferunt: prodi se aiunt. Dei verbum 
purum, purum, inclamant ; hominum commentaries 
aversantur. Insidiose inepte. Dei verbum perur- 
gemus, obscurant; Divos testamur interpretes, ob- 
sistunt. In summa, sic instituunt, nisi reorum iu- 
dicio steteris, nullum iudicium fore. 

Atque ita se gerunt in omni, quam exercemus, 
controversia, de inf usa gratia, de inhaerente iustitia, 
de Ecclesia conspicua, de necessitate Baptismatis, 
de Sacramentis et Sacrificio, de piorum meritis, de 
spe et timore, de peccatis imparibus, de auctoritate 
Petri, de clavibus, de votis, de conciliis evangelicis, 

1 Luc. xxii. 19; Matth. xxvi. 28; Marc. xiv. 24. 

2 loan, vi.; Matth. xvi.; Marc, xiv.; Luc. xxii.; I Cor. 
x. et xi. 


de caeteris. Scripturas neque paucas et ponderosas 
catholic! passim in libris, in colloquiis, in templis, 
in schola citavimus atque discussimus ; eluserunt. 
Veterum scholia graecorum et latinorum admovi- 
mus; abnuerunt. Quid turn denique? Doctor Mar- 
tinus Lutherus, aut vero Phillippus, aut certe Zuing- 
lius, aut sine dubio Calvinus et Bezza, fideliter 
enarrarunt. Egone quemquam vestrum existimem 
tarn esse mucosis naribus, qui hoc artificium, moni- 
tus, non persentiscat? Quare fateor me scholas 
Academicas cupide requirere, ut inspectantibus vo- 
bis, calamistratos istos milites, in solem et pulverem 
e suis umbraculis evocatos, non meis viribus, qui 
cum vestris centesima parte non sum conferendus, 
sed valentissima causa et certissima veritate debi- 


Audito iam Ecclesiae nomine, hostis expalluit. 
Sed tamen excogitavit quiddam, quod a vobis ani- 
madverti volo, ut falsi ruinam et inopiam cognos- 
catis. Senserat in Scripturis turn propheticis, turn 
apostolicis, ubique honorificam Ecclesiae fieri men- 
tionem: vocari civitatem sanctam (Apoc. xxi. 10), 
fructiferam vineam (Ps. Ixxix.Q), montem excelsum 
(Isai. ii. 2), directam viam (Ibid.xxxv. 8), col- 
umbam unicam (Cant. vi. 8), regnum coeli (Matth. 
xiii. 24), sponsam (Cant. iv. 8), et corpus Christi 
(Eph. v. 23 et I Cor. xii. 12), firmamentum veri 
(i Tim. iii. 15), multitudinem illam, cui Spiritus 
promissas instillet omnia salutaria (loan. xiv. 26) : 


illam, in quam tmiversam nullae sint umquam 
fauces diaboli morsum letiferum impacturae 
(Matth. xvi. 18); illam, cui quicumque repugnet, 
quantumvis ore Christum praedicet, non magis 
Christi, quam publicanus aut ethnicus (Matth. 
xviii. 17), potiatur. 

Non est ausus contravenire sonitu, videri noluit 
Ecclesiae, quam toties Scripturae commemorant, 
refragari; nomen callide retinuit, rem ipsam fun- 
ditus, definiendo, sustulit. His enim proprietatibus 
delineavit Ecclesiam, quae penitus ipsam occulant, 
et dimotam a sensibus tamquam ideam platonicam, 
secretis obtutibus hominum perpaucorum subii- 
ciant ; x eorum tantummodo, qui singulariter afflati, 
corpus hoc aerium intelligentia comprehenderent, 
et huiusce sodalitatis participes subtili quodam ocu- 
lo lustrarent. Vbi candor? Vbi simplicitas. 
Quae Scripturae, quae sensa, qui Patres, hoc peni- 
cillo depingunt Ecclesiam? Sunt Christi ad Asia- 
ticas ecclesias (Apoc. i. 2, 3), sunt Petri, Pauli, 
loannis, aliorum ad diversos epistolae; frequentes 
in Actis Apostolicis inchoantur et propagantur ec- 
clesiae (Act. viii. 10, n et seq.). Quid istae? 
Num soli Deo et sanctis hominibus, an christianis 
etiam cuiuscumque generis, manifestae? 

Sed profecto durum telum necessitas est. Igno- 
scite. Nam qui saeculis omnino quindecim, non 
oppidam, non villam, non domum reperiunt imbu- 
tam doctrina sua, donee infelix monachus (Luther- 
us) incesto connubio votam Deo virginem funes- 

1 Calv. Instit. 1. iv., c. I, n. 2 et 3. 


tasset; aut Helvetius gladiator (Zuinglius) in 
patriam coniurasset; aut stigmaticus perfuga (Cal- 
vinus) Genevam occupasset; ii coguntur Ecclesiam, 
si quam volent, in latebris venditare, et eos parentes 
asserere, quos nee ipsi noverint, neque mortalium 
quisquam aspexerit. Nisi forte gaudent maioribus 
illis, quos haereticos fuisse liquet, ut Aerio, lovin- 
iano, Vigilantio, Helvidio, Iconomachis, Beren- 
gario, Valdensibus, Lolhardo, Wiclefo, Hussio; a 
quibus pestifera quaedam fragmenta dogmatum 

Nolite mirari, si fumulos istos non pertimui, 
quos, modo ad meridianam lucem venero, minime 
fuerit laboriosum dispellere. Haec est enim nostra 
sermocianatio. Die mihi: subscribis Ecclesiae, 
quae saeculis anteactis viguit? Omnino. Obea- 
mus ergo terras et tempora. Cui? Coetui fide- 
lium. Quorum? Nomina nesciuntur. sed constat 
plurimos exstitisse. Constat? Quibus constat? 
Deo. Quis dicit? Nos, qui divinitus edocti sumus. 
Fabulae qui credam? Si arderes fide, tarn scires 
hoc, quam te vivere. 

Spectatum admissi, risum teneatis? 

luberi christianos omnes adiungere se Ecclesiae, 
cavere ne spiritali gladio trucidentur, in domo Dei 
pacem colore, huic animas credere columini veri- 
tatis, istic querelas omnes deponere, hinc eiectos 
habere pro ethnicis; nescire tamen tot centinis, tot 
homines, ubinam ilia sit, quive hue pertineant? 
Vnum illud crepare in tenebris, ubi ubi sit Ecclesia, 
tantummodo sanctos et in aethera destinatos ea con- 


tineri? Ex quo fit ut, si quis imperium sui Prae- 
sulis detrectare velit, scelere solvatur, dummodo 
sibi persuadeat presbyterum in crimen incidisse, et 
ab Ecclesia protinus excidisse. 

Quum scirem adversaries talia comminisci, quod 
nullius aetatis Ecclesiae consuessent, et orbatos tota 
re, velle tamen inter angustias vocabulum possidere, 
solabar me vestro acumine, atque adeo mihi pol- 
licebar, fore ut quamprimum huiusmodi technas ex 
ipsorum confessione cerneretis, statim homines in- 
genui et cordati stultas argutias in vestram intextas 
perniciem exscinderetis. 


Gravis, Ecclesia nascente, quaestio de legitimis 
caeremoniis, quae credentium animos disturbavit, 
coacto Apostolorum et seniorum concilio, soluta 
est. Credidere parentibus filii, pastoribus oves, in 
haec verba mandantibus : l " Visum est Spiritui 
sancto et nobis." Sequuta sunt ad extirpandam 
haeresim, quae varia quibusque saeculis pullulavit, 
oecumenica veterum Concilia quatuor, tantae firmi- 
tudinis, ut iis ante annos mille singularis honos 
tamquam divinis vocibus, haberetur. 2 Non abibo 
longius. Etiam domi nostrae, comitiis regni eadem 
Concilia pristinum ius inviolatamque dignitatem 
obtinent. Haec citabo, teque ipsam, 3 Anglia, dul- 
cissima patria, contestabor. Si, quemadmodum 

1 Act. xv. 28. 

2 Greg. 1. I, ep. 24. 

3 Ang. I Elizab. 



prae te fers, quatuor ista Concilia reverebere, sum- 
mum honorem primae sedis Episcopo, id est, Petro, 
deferes: 1 incruentum corporis et sanguinis Christi 
sacrificium in altari recognosces: 2 beatos Martyres, 
divosque omnes coelites, ut pro te Christo suppli- 
cent, obsecrabis: 3 mulierosos apostatas ab infando 
concubitu et incestu publico coercebis: 4 multa 
facies, quae demoliris; multa, quae facis, infecta 
voles. 5 Porro Synodos aliorum temporum, nomi- 
natim vero Tridentinam, eiusdem auctoritatis ac 
fidei cum primis illis fuisse, quando usus venerit, 
demonstraturum me spondeo atque recipio. 

Auctus igitur Conciliorum omnium valido et 
exquisito praesidio, cur non ingrediar in hanc pal- 
aestram animo tranquillo et praesenti, observaturus 
adversarium, quo se proripiat? Nam et evidentis- 
sima producam, quae distorquere non poterit, et 
probatissima, quae respuere non audebit. 

Fortasse verbosius loquendo diem extrahere con- 
abitur ; sed ab intentis hominibus, si vos rego bene 
novi, nee aures nee oculos compilabit. Quod si 
quis erit omnino tarn demens, qui se unum opponat 
Senatoribus orbis terrae, et iis quidem omni excep- 
tione maioribus, sanctioribus, doctioribus, vetusti- 
oribus; libenter aspiciam illud os, quod ubi vobis 
ostendero, reliqua cogitationibus vestris relinquam. 
Interim hoc monebo ; qui pleno Concilio, rite atque 
ordine consummate, momentum et pondus abrogat, 

1 Nic. can. vi.; Chalc. act. iv.; Const, c. 5. 

2 Ephes. cone, in epist. ad Nestor; Nic. c. xiv. 

3 Chalc. act. xi. 

4 Nic. cone, apud Spc. I. i. c. 8. 

6 Vide Chalc. can. iv., vii., xvi., xxiv. 


videri mihi millo consilio, nullo cerebro ; neque so- 
lum in theologicis tardum, sed etiam in politicis 
inconsultum. Si umquam Dei Spiritus illuxit Ec- 
clesiae, certe illud est tempus immitendi Numinis, 
quum omnium ecclesiarum, quae sunt in terris pa- 
tentissimae, religio, maturitas, scientia, sapientia, 
dignitas, unam in urbem confluxerint, adhibitisque 
modis omnibus divinis et humanis, quibus indagari 
veritas possit, promissum implorent Spiritum, 1 quo 
salutariter et prudenter sanciat. 

Prosiliat nunc aliquis factionis haereticae ma- 
gistellus, attollat supercilia, suspendat nasum, fron- 
tem perfricet, iudicesque suos scurriliter ipse iudi- 
cet. Quos ille ludos, quos iocos dabit? Repertus 
est Lutherus, 2 qui diceret, anteferre se Consiliis 
duorum suffragia bonorum et eruditorum hominum 
(putatote suum et Phillippi), si quando in Christi 
nomine consensissent. O circulos ! Repertus est 
Kemnitius, 3 qui concilium Tridentinum ad suos ver- 
tiginis importunae calculos exegerit; quid lucra- 
tus? Infamiam. Dum iste nictaverit, sepelietur 
cum Ario ; Tridentina Synodus quo magis invetera- 
scet, eo magis in dies eoque perennius efflorescet. 
Bone Deus ! quae gentium varietas, qui delectus 
episcoporum totius orbis, qui regum et rerumpub- 
licarum splendor, quae medulla theologorum, quae 
sanctitas, quae lacrymae, quae ieiunia, qui flores 
academici, quae linguae, quanta subtilitas, quantus 
labor, quam infmita lectio, quantae virtutum et stu- 

1 Matth. xviii. 20; loan. xiv. 26. 

2 Lib. de capt. Bab. 

3 Exam. Cone. Trid. 


diorum divitiae augustum illud sacrarium impleve- 
runt? Audivi ego Pontifices exsultantes, et in his 
Antonium, archiepiscopum Pragensem, a quo sum 
creatus presbyter, amplissimos et prudentissimos 
viros, quod in ea schola haesissent aliquot annis, 
ut nullum Ferdinandi Caesaris, cui multum debu- 
erant, regalius et uberius in se beneficium colerent, 
quam hoc fuit quod in Tridentino gymnasio legati 
ex Pannonia consedissent. Intellexit hoc Caesar, 
qui reversis ita gratulatus est: " Aluimus vos in 
schola optima." 

Hue invitati fide publica, cur non properarunt 
adversarii, ut eos palam refellerent, in quos ranun 
culi coaxant e cavernulis? Hussio et Hieronymo 
fregere fidem, inquiunt Qui? Constantiensis Con- 
cilii proceres Falsum est: nullam dedere. Sed 
nee in Hussium tamen animadversum fuisset, nisi 
homo perfidiosus et pestilens, retractus ex fuga, 
quam ei Sigismundus Imperator periculo capitis in- 
terdixerat, violatis etiam conditionibus, quas scripto 
pepigerat cum Caesare, vim omnem illius diploma- 
tis enervasset. Fefellit Hussium praecipitata ma- 
litia. lussus enim, quum barbaras in sua Bohemia 
tragoedias excitasset, semetipsum sistere Constan- 
tiae, despexit praerogativam Concilii; securitatem 
petiit a Caesare, Caesar obsignavit, christianus orbis 
resignavit maior Caesare. Redire ad mentem haer- 
esiarcha noluit : periit. Hieronymus vero Pragen- 
sis furtim venit Constantiam, protectus a nemine; 
deprehensus comparuit, peroravit, habitus est per- 
benigne, liber abiit quo voluit, sanatus est, haeresim 
eiuravit, relapsus est, exustus est. 


Quid toties unum exemplum de sexcentis exa- 
gitant? Repetant annales suos. Martinus ipse 
Lutherus (a. 1518) odium Dei et hominum, Au- 
gustae positus coram Cardinale Caietano, nonne 
quod potuit, eructavit, et Maximiliani litteris com- 
munitus excessit? Idem accitus Wormatiam (a. 
1521), quum et Caesarem et plerosque Imperil 
principes haberet infensos, nonne Caesaris verba 
tutus fuit? Postremo lutheranorum et zuinglian- 
orum capita, praesente Carolo quinto, haereticorum 
hoste, victore, domino, nonne datis induciis con- 
fessiones suas innovatas exhibuere comitiis Augus- 
tanis, et sospites abiere? Haud secus litterae Tri- 
dentinae locupletissimas adversario cautiones pro- 
viderant: 1 uti noluit. Nimirum se iactat in 
angulis, in quibus ubi tria verba graeca sonuerit, 
sapere videatur ; abhorret a luce, quae litteratorem 
in numero poneret, et ad honesta subsellia devo- 
caret. Catholicis Anglis tale chirographum impu- 
nitatis impetrent, si diligunt salutem animarum. 
Nos Hussium non causabimur; verbo Principis 
innixi, convolabimus. 

Sed ut, unde sum egressus, eo regrediar, Concilia 
generalia mea sunt, primum, ultimum, media; his 
pugnabo. Hastam exspectet adversarius amenta- 
tarn, quam avellere numquam poterit. Prosternatur 
in eo satanas, Christus vivat. 

1 Vide Cone. Trid. sess. n, I 5 et 18. 




Antiochiae, qua primum in urbe Christianorum 
nobile cognomentum increbuit, Doctores, 1 id est, 
eminentes theologi ; et Prophetae, id est, conciona- 
tores perquam celebres, floruerunt. Huiusce gene 
ris " scribas et sapientes, doctos in regno Dei, nova 
promentes et vetera," 2 Christum callentes et Moy- 
sem, Dominus ipse futures gregi prospexerat. Hos, 
ingentis beneficii loco donates, explodere, quanti 
maleficii est? Explosit adversarius. Quid ita? 
Quia stantibus illis, concidisset. Id ego quum pro 
certissimo comperissem, pugnam simpliciter exop- 
tavi, non illam iocularem, qua turbae velitantur 
in compitis, sed istam severam et acrem, qua con- 
gredimur in vestris Philosophorum spatiis: 

pede pes, densusque viro vir. 

Ad Patres si quando licebit accedere, confectum 
est praelium ; tarn sunt nostri, quam Gregorius ipse 
decimus tertius, filiorum Ecclesiae Pater amantis- 
simus. Nam ut omittam loca sparsa, quae ex mon- 
nmentis veterum conquisita, nostram fidem apposite 
affirmateque propugnant; tenemus horum integra 
volumina, quae de industria religionem, quam tue- 
mur, evangelicam distincte copioseque dilucidant. 
Duplex Hierarchia Martyris Dionysii 3 quas classes, 

1 Act. xiii. i; i Cor. xii. 28; Ephes. iv. n; i Cor. 
xiv., i et seq. 

2 Matth. xiii. 52. 

3 S. Dion. Areop. de quo vide. 6 Syn. act. 4, Adon., 
Tren. in martyr. Turon., Syng., Suid., Metap. 


quae sacra, quos ritus edocet? Pupugit ea res Lu- 
therum 1 tarn valde, ut huius opera " simillima som- 
niis, nee non perniciosissima " iudicaret. Imitatus 
parentem Caussaeus, 2 nescio quis terrae films, ex 
Gallia, non est veritus hunc Dionysium, inclytae 
gentis Apostolum, vocitare " delirum senem." Cen- 
turiatores 3 vehementer offendit Ignatius et Calvin- 
um, 4 ut in eius epistolis " deformes naevos, et 
putidas naenias " hominum quisquiliae notarint. 
Censorious 5 illis "fanaticum quiddam " Irenaeus 
edixit; Clemens auctor Stromatum " zizania fae- 
cesque protulit;" 6 reliqui Patres huius aevi, sane 
apostolici viri, " blasphemias et monstra posteris re- 
liquerunt." In Tertulliano rapiunt avide, quod a 
nobis edocti, nobiscum communiter detestentur; 
sed meminerint libellum de Praescriptionibus, 7 qui 
nostri temporis sectaries tarn insigniter perculit, 
numquam fuisse reprehensum. Hippolytus, Por- 
tuensis 8 episcopus, quam belle, quam clare Anti- 
christi nervum, lutherana tempora, praemonstravit? 
Eum propterea " scriptorem infantissimum et lar- 
vam " nominant. Cyprianum, delicias et clecus 
Africae, Gallicanus ille criticus J et Magdeburgici 10 
44 stupidum, et destitutum Deo, et depravatorem 
poenitentiae " nuncuparunt. Quid admisit? Scrip- 

1 Comm. in i, 13, 17 Deut. Item in capt. Babyl. 

2 Dial. 5 et I r. 

3 Cent. 2, c. 10. 

4 Inst. 1. i, c. 13, n. 29. 

5 Cent. 2, c. 5. 

6 Cent. I, 1. 2, c. 10 et seq. 

7 Tert. 1. de praescr. contr. haer. 

8 Orat. de cos. secul. 

9 Causs. dial. 8 et 1 1. 
10 Cent. 3, c. 4. 


sit enim de virginibus, de lapsis, de unitate Eccle- 
siae tractationes euismodi, eas etiam epistolas Cor- 
nelio, Romano Pontifici, ut nisi fides huic martyri 
detrahatur, Petrus Martyr Vermilius, omnesque 
cum eo foederati, peiores adulteris et sacrilegis 
habeantur. Ac ne singulis insistam diutius, Patres 
hums saeculi damnantur omnes, " quippe qui doc- 
trinam de poenitentia mire depravarint." 1 Quo 
pacto? Nam austeritas canonum, quae viguit ea 
tempestate, maiorem in modum displicet huic sec- 
tae plausibili, quae tricliniis aptior, quam templis, 
voluptarias aures titillare et pulvillos omni cubito 2 
solet assuere. 

Quid aetas proxima, quid peccavit? Chrysosto- 
mus et ii Patres " iustitiam fidei foede " videlicet 
" obscurarunt." 3 Nazianzenus, quern honoris causa, 
Theologum veteres appellarunt, Caussaeo 4 iudice, 
" Tabulator, quid affirmaret, nesciit." Ambrosius 
" a cacodaemone fascinatus est." Hieronymus 
" aeque damnatus, atque diabolus: iniuriosus Apo- 
stolo, 5 blasphemus, sceleratus, impius." " Vnus " 
Gregorio Massovio 6 " pluris est Calvinus, quam 
centum Augustini." Parum est, centum; Lutherus 7 
" nihili facit adversum se mille Augustinos, mille 
Cyprianos, mille Ecclesias." Longius rem dedu- 
cere, supervacaneum puto. Nam in hos, qui bac- 

1 Ibid. 

2 Ezech. xiii. 18. 

3 Praef. in Cent. 5. 

4 Dial. 6, 7, 8. 

5 Beza in act. c. 23, v. 3. 

6 Test. Stanch. 1. de Trinit. 

7 Contr. Henr. reg. Angl. 


chantur, quis miretur in Optatum, Athanasium, 
Hilarium, Cyrillos, Epiphanium, Basilium, Vincen- 
tium, Fulgentium, Leon em, Gregoriumque Roma- 
num fuisse procacissimos? 

Quamquam si datur ulla rebus iniustis iusta de- 
fensio, non inficior habere Patres, ubicumque inci- 
deris, quod isti, dum sibi consentiunt, necessario 
stomachentur. Etinem qui odere stata ieiunia, 
quo animo oportet esse in Basilium, Nazianzenum, 
Chrysostomum, qui de quadragesima et indictis 
ieiuniorum feriis, tamquam de rebus iam usitatis, 
conciones egregias publicarunt? Qui suas animas 
auro, libidine, crapula et ambitiosis conspectibus 
vendiderunt, possuntne non esse inimicissimi Basi- 
lio, Chrysostomo, Hieronymo, Augustino, quorum 
excellentes libri de monachorum institute, regula, 
virtutibus, teruntur? 

Qui captivam hominis voluntatem invexere, qui 
Christiana funebria sustulere, qui Divorum reliquias 
incendere, sintne placabiles Augustino, qui de libero 
arbitrio libros tres, de cura pro mortuis unum, de 
miraculis ad Basilicas et memorias Martyrum pro- 
lixum caput nobilissimi operis 1 et conciones aliquot 
exaravit? Qui fidem suis captiunculis metiuntur, 
nonne succenseant Augustino, cuius est insignis 
epistola, 2 qua se profitetur antiquitati, consensioni, 
successioni perpetuae et Ecclesiae, quae sola inter 
tot haereses Catholicae nomen usucapione vindicat 

1 Lib. 22 de Civit. Dei c. 8 et serm. de divers. 34 
et seq. 

* Contr. ep. Man. quam vocant funda c. 4. 


Optatus, Milevitanus episcopus, Donatianam 
partem revincit 1 ex communione Catholica; nequi- 
tiam accusat ex decreto Melchiadis (lib. i); hae- 
resim refutat ex ordine Romanorum Pontificum 
(lib. 2) ; insaniam patefacit ex Eucharistia et 
chrismate contaminatis (lib. 3); sacrilegium horret 
ex diffractis altaribus " in quibus Christi membra 
portata sunt," pollutisque calicibus " qui Christi 
sanguinem tenuerunt," (lib. 6). De Optato quid 
sentiant, aveo scire, quem Augustinus 2 ut venera- 
bilem et catholicum episcopum, Ambrosio parem 
et Cypriano ; quem Fulgentius 3 ut sanctum et fide- 
lem Pauli interpretem, Augustini similem et Am- 
brosii, meminerunt. 

Athanasii Symbolum in templis concinunt. Num 
favent ei, qui Antonium Eremitam Aegyptium, 4 
gravis auctor, accurate libello dilaudaverit, quique 
cum Alexandrina Synodo 5 iudicium Sedis Aposto- 
licae, Divi Petri, suppliciter appellant? Prudentius 
in hymnis quoties precatur Martyres, quos decan- 
tat? Quoties ad eorum cineres et ossa Regem Mar- 
tyrum veneratur? Num hunc probabunt? Hiero- 
nymus pro Divorum reliquiis et honoribus scribit 
in Vigilantium, in lovinianum pro virginitatia 
gradu. Huccine patientur? Ambrosius 6 tutores 
suos Gervasium et Protasium, celebritate notissima, 
in Arianam ignominiam honestavit ; cui facto divi- 

1 Lib. i contr. Parmen. 

2 Aug. 1. i. contr. Parmen.; De unit, c 16; et De 
doctr. christ. c. 40. 

3 Lib. 2 ad Monim. 

4 Vide S. Hieron. de Script. Eccles. 

5 Vide Epist. Syn. Alexandr. ad Felic. 2. 

6 Epist. ad Ital. Item serm. 91. 


nissimi Patres 1 encomium tribuere: quod factum 
Deus non uno prodigio decoravit. Num benevoli 
sunt Ambrosio futuri? Gregorius Magnus, noster 
Apostolus, planissime noster est, eoque nomine nos- 
tris adversariis odiosus ; quern Calvini 2 rabies negat 
in schola sancti Spiritus educatum, propterea quod 
sacras imagines illitteratorum libros appellasset. 

Dies me deficeret numerantem epistolas, conci- 
ones, homilias, orationes, opuscula, disceptationes 
Patrum, in quibus ex apparato graviter et ornate 
nostra catholicorum dogmata roborarunt. Quam- 
diu apud bibliopolas ista venierint, tamdiu frustra 
nostrorum codices prohibentur; frustra servantur 
aditus oraeque maritimae; frustra domus, arcae, 
scrinia, capsulae disquiruntur ; frustra tot portis 
minaces tabulae suffiguntur. Nullus enim Hardin- 
gus, nee Sanderus, nee Stapletonus, nee Bristolius 
haec nova somnia vehementius, quam hi, quos re- 
censui, Patres, insectantur. Talia cogitanti accrevit 
animus et desiderium pugnae, in qua, quoquo se 
moverit adversarius, nisi gloriam Deo cesserit, feret 
incommodum. Patres admiserit, captus est; ex- 
cluserit, nullus est. 

Adolescentibus nobis ita contigit. loannes Ivel- 
lus antesignanus calvinianorum Angliae, catholicos 
ad Divi Pauli Londinensium incredibili iactantia 
laoessivit, invocatis per hypocrisim et imploratis Pa- 
tribus, quicumque intra salutis annum sexcentesi- 
mum claruisset. Accipiunt conditionem memora- 

1 Aug. 1. 22 de Civ. Dei ; Greg. Tur. 1. de glor, Mart. 
c. 46 et Metaph. 

2 Instit. 1. i, c. n, n. 5. 


biles viri, qui turn exsulabant Lovanii, summis licet 
difficultatibus propter iniquitatem suorum tem- 
porum circumsepti. Ausim dicere, tanto popularibus 
nostris bono fuisse illam Ivellii astutiam, inscitiam, 
improbitatem, impudentiam, quas ii scriptores feli- 
citer expanderunt, ut vix aliud quidquam, memoria 
mea, provenerit Anglorum Ecclesiae laboranti f ruo 
tuosius. Edictum continue valvis appenditur, ne 
qui codices illiusmodi legerentur, neve haberentur. 
Quum tantis clamoribus propemodum extorti pro- 
diissent, didicere quicumque negotium attigissent, 
Patres fuisse catholicos, id est, nostros. Neque 
hoc sibi suisque vulnus inflictum Laurentius Hum- 
fredus 1 tacuit; qui quum alte Ivellum quoad cae- 
tera sustulisset, unam ei notam aspersit inconsid- 
erantiae, quod Patrum calculos recepisset, quibus- 
cum sibi nihil esse commercii, nee fore, sine ulla 
circuitione proloquitur. 

Pertentavimus etiam familiariter aliquando To- 
biam Matthaeum, qui nunc in concionibus domina- 
tur, quern propter bonas artes et virtutum semina 
dileximus, ut responderet ingenue, possetne qui 
Patres assiduus lectitaret, istarum esse partium, 
quas ille suaserat. Retulit, non posse, si pariter 
eos legeret iisque crederet. Verissimum hoc ver- 
bum est, neque aliter eum nunc, aut Mattheum Hut- 
tonum, qui vir nominatus in paucis, versare Patres 
dicitur, aut reliquos adversaries, qui hoc faciunt, 
sentire arbitror. 

Hactenus ergo securus in hanc aciem potui des- 
cendere, bellaturus cum iis, qui quasi auribus lupum 
teneant, aeternam causae maculam cogantur inu- 

1 Lib. de vita Ivelli. 


rere, sive recusent Patres, sive deposcant. Nam in 
altero fugam adornant, in altero suffocantur. 


Si quibus umquam cordi curaeque fuit id, quod 
maximopere nostris fuit et esse debet: " Scruta- 
mini Scripturas," 1 facile princeps et palmares in 
hoc genere sanctissimi Patres exstitere. Horum 
opera sumptuque tot gentibus et linguis transcripta 
Biblia et importata sunt ; horum periculis et crucia- 
tibus erepta de flammis hostilibus et vastitate; 
horum laboribus et vigiliis omnem in partem enu- 
cleata studiosissime ; die noctuque sacras Litteras 
imbibere, de suggestibus omnibus sacras Litteras 
edidere, immensa volumina sacris Litteris ditavere, 
fidelissimis commentariis sacras Litteras explicuere 
cibos et inediam sacris Litteris condivere, occupati 
denique sacris in Litteris, ad senectutem decrepi- 
tam pervenere. 

Quod si frequenter ipsi quoque ab auctoritate 
maiorum, ab Ecclesiae praxi, a successione Ponti- 
ficum, a Conciliis oecumenicis, a traditionibus 
apostolicis, a cruore Martyrum, a scitis Praesu- 
lum, a visis eventisque mirabilibus argumentati 
sunt ; tamen omnium maxime et libentissime sanc- 
tarum Litterarum testimonia densa conglobant, 
haec premunt, in his habitant, huic " armaturae 
fortium " duces robustissimi, sarta tecta civitatis 
Dei contra nef arios impetus quotidie munientes, op- 
timo iure primas partes honoratissimasque porri- 

1 loan. v. 39. 


Quo magis demiror illam exceptionem adversarii 
superbam et fatuam, qui velut aquam in profluente 
quaeritans, sic in Scripturis confertissimis Scriptu- 
rarum penuriam obiectat. Tantisper se Patribus 
assensurum dicit, dum sacris Litteris adhaerescunt. 
Num loquitur ex animo? Curabo igitur procedant 
armati atque stipati Christo, Prophetis, Apostolis 
atque omni apparatu biblico, celeberrimi auctores, 
antiquissimi Patres, sanctissimi viri, Dionysius, 
Cyprianus, Athanasius, Basilius, Nazianzenus, Am- 
brosius, Hieronymus, Chrysostomus, Augustinus, 
latinusque Gregorius. Regnet in Anglia fides ilia, 
quam hi Patres, amicissimi Scripturarum, ex Scrip 
turis exstruunt. Quas afferunt, afferemus; quas 
conferunt, confer emus; quod inferunt, inferemus. 
Placet? Excrea, die sodes Minime vero, inquis, 
nisi recte exponant Quid est hoc ipsum, recte? 
Arbitratu tuo. Nihilne pudet labyrinthi? 

Ergo quum sperem in Academiis florentissimis 
consociatum iri bene multos, qui, non pingui Min 
erva, sed acuto iudicio in has controversias inspec- 
turi sunt, et horum responsa nugatoria libraturi, 
laetus hunc diem campi praestolabor, ut qui contra 
sylvestres tumulos mendiculorum inermium nobili- 
tatem et robur Ecclesiae Christi cogitem educere. 



Pristinam Ecclesiae faciem historia prisca rete- 
git. Hue provoco. Certe antiquiores historici, 
quos etiam usurpant adversarii, fere numerantur 
Eusebius, Damasus, Hieronymus, Ruffinus, Orosius, 


Socrates, Sozomenus, Theodoretus, Cassiodorus, 
Gregorius Turonensis, Vsuardus, Regino, Marianus 
Sigebertus, Zonaras, Cedrenus, Nicephorus. Quid 
narrant? Nostrorum laudes, progressus, vicissitu- 
dinem, hostes. Imo vero, quod observes diligenter, 
illi qui dissident a nobis odio capitali, Philippus, 
Pantaleon, Funecius, Magdeburgici, quum se ad 
scribendam vel chronologiam Ecclesiae vel histor- 
iam appulissent, nisi nostrorum gesta colligerent, 
ac inimicorum Ecclesiae nostrae fraudes et scelera 
coacervarent, mille quingentos annos argumento 
vacui praetermitterent. 

Cum his considera peculiares certarum historio- 
graphos regionum, qui unius acta cuiusque populi 
curiosius operosiusque scrutati sunt. li quasi Spar- 
tam adepti, quam locupletare modis omnibus et 
perpolire cuperent, qui ne convivia quidem lautiora, 
aut manicatas tunicas, aut pugionum capulos, aut 
inaurata calcaria, talesque minutias, si novitatem 
saperent, tacuere; profecto, si quid in religione 
mutatum, aut a primis degeneratum saeculis inau- 
dissent, f requentes memorassent ; si non f requentes, 
saltern aliqui: si non aliqui, unus aliquis absque 
dubio. Nullus omnino, neque benevolus nobis, 
neque malevolus, non modo quidquam tale prodi- 
dit, sed nee significavit. 

Verbi gratia. Dant nobis adversarii, nee aliter 
possunt, fuisse Romanam Ecclesiam aliquando 
Sanctam, Catholicam, Apostolicam: turn quum 
haec a Divo Paulo promeruisset elogia: 1 " Vestra 
fides annuntiatur in universo mundo: sine inter- 

1 Rom. i, 8, 9,; xv. 29; xvi, 16, 19. 


missione memoriam vestri facio: Scio quia veniens 
ad vos, in abundantia benedictionis Christ! veniam : 
Salutant vos omnes Ecclesiae Christi: Vestra enim 
obedientia in omnem locum divulgata est." Turn 
quum ibi Paulus in libera custodia 1 disseminaret 
Evangelium ; turn quum in ea quondam " Babylone 
coelectam Ecclesiam " 2 Petrus regeret; turn quum 
ille Clemens, 3 apprime laudatus ab Apostolo, 4 sed- 
eret ad ipsa gubernacula; turn quum profani Cae- 
sares, 5 ut Nero, Domitianus, Traianus, Antoninus, 
Romanos Pontifices laniarent; turn etiam, vel Cal- 
vino 6 teste, quum Damasus, Siricius, Anastasius, 
Innocentius, clavum tenerent Apostolicum. Hoc 
enim saeculo nihil adhuc, praesertim Romae, di- 
gressos ab Evangelica doctrina, liberaliter ille 

Quando igitur hanc fidem tantopere celebratam 
Roma perdidit? Quando esse desiit, quod ante 
fuit? Quo tempore, quo Pontifice, qua via, qua vi, 
quibus incrementis urbem et orbem religio pervasit 
aliena? Quas voces, quas turbas, quae lamenta 
progenuit? Omnes orbe reliquo sopiti sunt, dum 
Roma, Roma, inquam, nova sacramenta, novum 
sacrificium, novum religionis dogma procuderet? 
Nullus exstitit historicus neque latinus, neque grae- 
cus, neque remotus, neque citimus, qui rem tantam 
vel obscure iaceret in commentarios? 

1 Act. xxviii. 30. 

2 i Pet. v. 13. 

3 Hieron. in cap. script. Eccles.; Euseb. 2 hist.c, 14* 

4 Phillip, iv, 3. 

5 Iren. 1. 3, c. 3. 

6 Inst. 1. 4, c. 2, n. 3 et in epist. ad Sadol. 


Ergo perspicuum hoc quidem est, si, quae nos 
credimus, historia multa et varia, nuntia vetus- 
tatis, vita memoriae, loquitur ac repetit affluenter; 
quae vero isti obtrudunt, nulla naratio post homines 
natos in Ecclesia valuisse commeminit: et Histori- 
cos esse meos, et incursiones adversarias esse frigi- 
dissimas, quae nihil movere possint, nisi prius re- 
ceptum sit, omnes omnium temporum christianos in 
spissam perfidiam atque in gehennae voraginem 
corruisse, donee Lutherus Boram constuprasset. 


Ego vero, praestantissimi viri, quum de multis 
haeresibus quaedam apud me opiniosissimorum 
portenta reputo, quae mihi venient expugnanda; 
meipsum inertiae nequitiaeque condemnem, si cui- 
usquam in experiundo facultatem aut vires extim- 
escerem. Sit ingeniosus, sit eloquens, sit exercita- 
tus, sit omnium librorum helluo; tamen aridus et 
balbus appareat necesse est, quum haec tarn " adu- 
nata * sustentabit. Disputabitur enim, si forte nobis 
annuent, de Deo, de homine, de peccato, de iustitia, 
de sacrimentis, de moribus. Videro an ausint asse- 
verare, quae sentiunt, quaeque, rebus addicti neces- 
sariis, divulgant in scriptiunculis. Faxo norint ista 
suorum axiomata. 

DE DEO. " Deus est auctor et causa 1 peccati, 
volens, suggerens, efficiens, iubens, operans, et in 
hoc impiorum scelerata consilia gubernans. Pro- 

1 Calv. Inst. 1. i, c. 18; 1. 2, c. 4; 1 3, cc. 23 et 24; 
Petr. Mart, in i, Sam. 2. 



prium Dei opus fuit, l ut vocatio Pauli, sic adul- 
terium Davidis, ludaeque proditoris impietas." 
Monstrum hoc, cuius Philippum aliquando puduit, 
Lutherus 2 tamen, a quo Philippus hauserat, quasi 
oraculum coeleste miris extollit laudibus, et alum- 
num suum eo nomine tantum non exaequat 3 Apos- 
tolo Paulo. Percontabor etiam, quid animi Luthero 
fuerit, quern Angli 4 calviniani " virum divinitus 
datum ad orbem illuminandum " pronuntiant, 
quum hunc versum demeret supplicationibus Eccle- 
siae. 6 " Sancta Trinitas, unus Deus, miserere no- 

DE CHRISTO. Mox ad personam Christi progre- 
diar. Quaeram ista sibi quid velint ; Christus Dei, 
Filius, Deus de Deo? Calvino: 6 " Deus ex sese," 
Bezae: 7 " Non est genitus de Patris essentia." 
Item: " Duae constituantur in Christo uniones hy- 
postaticae, 8 altera animae cum carne, Divinitatis 
cum humanitate altera." " Locus apud loannem: " 
Ego et Pater unum sumus/ non ostendit Chris 
tum Deum * homoousion 9 Deo Patri." Sed et 
anima mea, in quit Lutherus, 10 odit hoc verbum 
homoousion. " Pergite: "Christus ab infantia 

1 Melanct. in cap. Rom. 8. 

2 Sic docet Luth. in asser. 36 et in resol. asser. 36 et 
in libr. de servo arbitrio. 

3 Praef . in Phillip, in ep. ad Rom. 

4 In Apol. Eccl. Anglic. 
Vide enchir. prec. an. 1541. 

Calv. Inst. 1. i, c. 13, n. 23, 24. 
T Beza in Hes. 

8 Beza cont. Schmidel. 1. de unitat. hypost. duas in 
Christ, nat. 

9 Calv. in loan, x, 30. 
* Luth. contr. Latom, 


non fuit gratia constimmatus, 1 sed animi dotibus 
velut caeteri homines adolevit : usu factus quotidie 
sapientior, ita ut puerulus ignorantia laborarit." 
Quod perinde est, ac si dicer ent originis labe et 
vitio sordidatum. Sed cognoscite diriora: " Chris- 
tus, quum orans in horto, sudoribus aquae manaret 
et sanguinis, sensu damnationis aeternae cohorruit : 2 
vocem edidit sine ratione, sine spiritu, vocem doloris 
impetu repentinam, quam, ut non satis meditatam, 
celeriter castigavit." Estne aliquid amplius? At- 
tendite: " Christus, quum actus in crucem excla- 
maret : " Deus meus, Deus meus, ut quid dereli- 
quisti me? accensus est flammis inferni, 3 desper- 
ationis vocem emisit, non aliter affectus, quam si 
pereundum ei foret internecione sempiterna." 

His etiam, si quid possunt, addant: " Christus, 
inquiunt, 4 descendit ad inferos, id est, mortuus ge- 
hennam gustavit, nihilo minus quam animae dam- 
natorum, nisi quod sibi restituendus erat. Quan- 
doquidem enim morte corporea nobis nihil profuis- 
set: 6 anima quoque luctari cum morte debuit 
aeterna, atque hoc modo nostrum scelus supplici- 
umque dependere." Ac ne quis forte suspicetur, 
istud Calvino per incuriam obrepsisse, idem Cal- 
vinus: 6 * Omnes vos, si qui doctrinam istam solatii 

1 Bucer. in Luc. 2; Calv. in har. ev.; Luc. Los.; Me- 
lanct. in ev. Dom. i p. Epiph. 

2 Marlorat. in Matth. 26; Calv. in harm, eveng. 

3 Brent, in Luc. part. 2, horn. 65 et in loan. horn. 54; 
Calv. in harm, evang. 

* Schmidel. Cone, de pass, et coena Dom.; Aepinus 
comm. in Ps. 16. 

6 Calv. Inst. 1. 2, c. 16, n. 10, n; Brent, in catech, 
an. 1551. 

6 Ibid. n. 12, 


plenam exagitastis, perditos" appellat "nebulones." 
Tempora, tempora, cuiusmodi monstrum aluistis? 
Cruor ille delicatus et regius, qui de innocentis 
Agni oorpore lacerato fissoque scaturiit, cuius cru- 
oris una guttula propter dignitatem Hostiae mille 
mundos redimere potuisset, nihil humano generi 
profecit, nisi " mediator Dei et hominum ( I Tim. 
ii. 5), homo Christus lesus mortem quoque secun- 
dam (Apoc. ii. 1 1)," mortem animae, mortem gra- 
tiae, peccati solius et exsecrabilis blasphemiae 
sociam, pertulisset? Prae hac insania modestus 
videbitur Bucerus, quamquam est impudens, qui 1 
infernum in symbolo sepulcrum accipit, per epex- 
egesim valde praeposteram, ac potius tautologiam 
ineptam atque stolidam. 

Anglicani sectarii, pars Calvino, idolo suo, pars 
Bucero, magno magistro, solent accedere; pars 
etiam submurmurant in hunc articulum, ne quid 
facessat ultra molestiae, quemadmodum sine tu- 
multu penitus eximatur de Symbolo. Id vero etiam 
fuisse tentatum in conventiculo quodam Londi- 
nensi, memini narrasse mihi, qui interfuit, Richar- 
dum Chenaeum, miserrimum senem, male mulcta- 
tum a latronibus foris, neque tamen ingressum in 
paternam domum. Hactenus de Christo. 

DE HOMINE. De homine 2 quid? " Imago Dei 
penitus in homine deleta est, nulla boni scintilla 
superstite : tota natura quoad omnes animae partes 
ita f unditus eversa, ut ne renatus quidem et sanctus 

1 Buc. in Matt. cap. 26. 

2 Illyr. in yar. 1. de orig. pecc.; Sarcer. de cons. vet. 
Eccles.; Aepinus de imb. et pecc. Sanct.; Kemn. contra 
cens. col.; Calv. Inst. 1. 4, c. 15, n. 10, 1 1, 


quidquam sit aliud intrinsecus, nisi mera corruptio 
atque contagio." Quorsum ista? Vt qui sola fide 
gloriam rapturi sunt, in omnium turpitudinum coe- 
no volutati, naturam accusent, virtutem desperent, 
praecepta deonerent. 

DE PECCATO. Hue Illyricus, Magdeburgen- 
sium primipilus, illud suum adiecit immane placi- 
tum 1 de originis peccato, quod esse vult: " Inti- 
mam substantiam animarum, quippe quas, post 
Adami lapsum, diabolus ipse procreet, et in sese 
transformet." Hoc quoque tritum est in hac faece: 
" Omnia peccata esse paria:" 2 sed ita (ne Stoici 
reviviscant), " si Deo iudice ponderentur." Ac si 
Deus, aequissimus iudex, oneri nostro cumulum 
potius, quam levamentum faceret, et id, quod non 
est in re, quum sit ipse iustissimus, exaggeraret. 
Hac trutina non levius in Deum severissime iudi- 
cantem deliquerit ille caupo, qui gallum gallina- 
ceum, quando non est opus, occiderit, quam inf amis 
ille sicarius, qui plenus Beza, Gallum heroa Gui- 
sium, admiribili virtute principem, displosa fistula 
interemit; quo facinore nihil vidit orbis noster 
aetate nostra funestius, nihil luctuosius. 

DE GRATIA. Sed fortasse, qui tarn sunt in pec- 
cati conditione tetrici, magnifice philosophantur de 
divina gratia, quae huic malo succurrere ac mederi 
possit. Praeclaras vero isti partes assignant gra- 
tiae, " quam neque infusam cordibus nostris, neque 
ad resistendum sceleribus validam esse latrant, sed 

1 Illyr. in var. 1. de pecc. orig. Vide Hesbusium in ep. 
ad Illyr. 

2 Calv. in antidot. Cone. Trid. Idem docuerat Wiclef. 
apud. Wald. 1. 2, de Sacr. c. 154. 


extra nos in solo Dei favore 1 collocant: " qui favor 
non emendet impios, nee purget, nee illuminet, 
nee ditet; sed veterem illam sentinam adhuc 
manantem atque foetentem, ne deformis et 
odiosa putetur, Deo connivente, dissimulet. Quo 
suo plasmate tantopere delectantur, ut ne " Christus 
quidem aliter apud illos 2 gratia plenus et veritate 
dicatur, quam quod ei Deus Pater mirandum in 
modum faverit." 

DE IVISTITIA. Quae res ergo iustitia est? Rela- 
tio. 3 Non enim ex theologies concinnata virtutibus, 
fide, spe, charitate, quae animam suo nitore con- 
vestiant; sed tantum " occultatio delicti, quam qui 
sola fide prehenderit, ille tarn de salute certus est, 
ac si iampridem interminato coeli gaudio 4 fruere- 
tur." Age, somniet hoc ; sed unde constare poterit 
de futura perseverantia, qua qui caruit, exivit infe- 
licissimus, licet ad tempus pure pieque iustitiam 
coluisset? Imo vero, " haec tua fides, Calvinus 
ait, 5 nisi tuam tibi perseverantiam firme pronuntiet, 
ut hallucinari nequeas, tamquam inanis et languida 
sperneretur." Agnosco discipulum Lutheri. "Chri- 
stianus, inquit ille 6 etiam volens, non potest salu- 
tem perdere, nisi nolit credere." 

DE SACRAMENTIS. Ad Sacramenta festino. 
Nullum, nullum, non duo, non unum, O Sancte 

1 Luth. in resp. contra Lovan. 

2 Bucer. in loan, i; Wald. in nat. Christ! ; Brent, hom 
1 6 in loan.; Cent. 1. i, c. 4. 

8 Hesb. de iustif. in resp. asv. 115 obiect. Illyric. in 
Apol. confes. Antuerp. c. 6 de iustif. 
4 Calv. Inst. 1. 3, c. 2, n. 28 etc. 
* Calv. Inst. 1. 3, c. 2, n. 40. 
6 Lib. de capt. Babyl. , 


Christe, reliquerant. Ipsorum quippe panis vene- 
num est ; Baptismus etsi adhuc verus, tamen ipsorum 
iudicio " nihil est, non est unda salutis, non est 
canalis gratiae, non derivat in nos Christ! merita; 
sed significatio dumtaxat salutis est. Itaque ni- 
hilo pluris Baptismum Christi, quoad naturam rei, 
quam loannis facere caeremoniam. Si habeas, 
recte; si careas, nihil damni: crede, salvus es, 
antequam abluare." 1 Quid ergo parvuli, qui nisi 
iuventur virtute Sacramenti, sua fide miselli nihil 
assequuntur? " Potius quam Sacramento Baptis- 
matis quidquam tribuamus, inquiunt Magdebur- 
gici, 2 demus inesse fidem ipsis infantulis, qua ser- 
ventur, cuius fidei pulsus quosdam abditos intelli- 
gant " ipsi, qui vivant necne, nondum intelligunt. 
Durum. Si hoc adeo durum est, Lutheri pharma- 
cum auditote: " Praestat, in quit, 3 omittere, quan- 
doquidem nisi credat infans, nequidquam lavatur." 
Haec illi quidem ancipites animo, quidnam enun- 
tient categorice. Ergo Balthassar Pacimontanus 
diribitor interveniat; qui parens Anabaptistarum, 
quum parvulis motum fidei non posset affingere, 
Lutheri cantiunculam adprobavit, et paedobaptis- 
mum eiiciens e templis, " neminen nisi adultum 
fonte sacro decrevit abluere." Ad reliqua Sacra- 
menta quod attinet, quamvis ilia bestia multiceps 
horrendas eiectet contumelias, tamen quia quoti- 

1 Calv. Inst. 1. 4, c. 15, n. 2 et 10; Cent. 1. i, c. 10; Luth. 
1. de capt. Babyl. 

2 Cent. 2 et 5, c. 4. 

3 Luth. adv. Cochlae, Item epist. ad Melanct. t. 2; et 
in ep. ad Wald. 


dianae iam sunt et callum auribus obduxerunt, hie 

DE MORIBVS. Restant haereticorum de vita et 
moribus frusta nocentissima, quae Lutherus evomit 
in chartas, ut ex unius pectoris impure gurgustio 
pestem lectoribus inhalaret. Audite patienter, et 
erubescite, et mihi date veniam recitanti: " Si nolit 
uxor 1 , aut non possit, veniat ancilla. Siquidem res 
uxoria tarn est cuique necessaria, quam esca, potus, 
somnus. Matrimonium est virginitate multo prae- 
stantius; earn Christus, earn Paulus dissuaserunt 
hominibus christianis." Sed haec fortasse propria 
Lutheri sunt? Non sunt. Etiam nuper a meo 
Charco, 2 sed misere timideque defenduntur. Vultis 
ne plura? Quidni? " Quanto sceleratior es, in- 
quit, 3 tanto vicinior gratiae. Omnes actiones bonae 
peccata sunt ; Deo iudice, mortif era ; Deo propitio, 
leviuscula 4 Nemo malum suapte voluntate cogi- 
tat 5 Decalogus nihil ad christianos 6 Opera nostra 
Deus nequaquam curat Soli recte participant coe- 
na Dominica, qui tristes, afflictas, perturbatas, con- 
fusas, erraticas apportant conscientias. Confitenda 
crimina sunt, sed cuilibet, qui si te vel ioco ab- 
solverit, modo credideris, absolutus es. Legere 
preces horarias non est sacerdotum, sed laicorum 
Christian! liberi sunt a statutis hominum." Satis 

1 Luth. serm. de matrim. et lib. de vit. coniug.; in 
asser. art. 16; lib. de vot. monast. 

2 Chare, in Cens. suum. 

3 Luth. serm. de Pet.; in asser. art. 32. 

4 Id. 1. de serv. arbit. 
6 Id. serm. de Moyse. 

6 Id. 1. de capt. Bab. c. de Euch. 


superque lacunam istam commosse videor. lam 
finio. Nee vero putetis iniquiorem esse me, qui 
lutheranos et zuinglianos promiscue coarguerim; 
nam isti memores a quo proseminati sint, inter se 
fratres et amici volunt esse, 1 adeoque gravem in- 
terpretantur iniuriam, quum in ulla re praeter im 
am, discriminantur. 

Equidem non sum tanti, ut vel mediocrem locum 
mihi sumam in selectis theologis, qui hodie bellum 
haeresibus indixere ; sed hoc scio, quantuluscumque 
sum, periclitari me non posse, dum Christi gratia 
fultus adversum talia commenta, tarn invisa, tarn 
insulsa, tarn bruta, coelo terraque iuvantibus, prae- 



Scitum est, inter caecos luscum regnare posse. 
Apud rudes valet saepe fucata disputatio, quam 
schola Philosophorum exsibilat. Multa peccat ad- 
versarius in hoc genere ; sed quatuor f allaciis pler- 
umque consuitur, quas in Academia malim, quam 
in trivio, retexere. 

Primum vitium a-KLa^a-^ia est, quae auras et 
umbras magno contau diverberat. Hoc pacto: 
contra coelibes iuratos et votos in castimoniam, 
quod nuptiae bonae sint, virginitas melior, offer- 
untur Scripturae loquentes honorifice de coniugio. 
Quern feriunt? Contra meritum hominis christiani, 
tinctum Christi sanguine, alioquin nullum, promun- 

1 Apol. Eccles. Angl. 


tur testimonia, quibus iubemur, nee naturae, nee 
legi, sed sanguini Christi fidere. Quern refellunt? 
In eos, qui colunt Coelites, ut famulos Christi 
maxime gratiosos, citantur integrae pagellae, quae 
vetant colere multos Deos. Vbinam sunt? Huius- 
modi argumentis, quae apud haereticos infinita re- 
perio, nobis esse detriment non poterunt, vobis 
esse fastidio poterunt. 

Aliud vitium ^070 payjia est, quae sensa de- 
serens, loquaciter cum verbo litigat, " Invenias mi- 
hi Missam, inquiunt, aut Purgatorium in Scrip- 
turis." Quid ergo? Trinitas, Homoousion, Per 
sona, nusquam sunt in Bibliis, quia voces istae non 
sunt? Affine est huic peccato litterarum aucupi- 
um ; quum neglecta consuetudine et mente loquen- 
tium, quae vita vocabuli est, adversus elementa con- 
tenditur. Nempe sic aiunt: "Presbyter nihil est 
Graecis, nisi senior; Sacramentum, quodvis mys- 
terium." Caeterum acute D. Thomas, 1 ut omnia: 
" In vocibus, inquit, videndum, non tarn ex quo, 
quam ad quid sumantur." 

Tertium, o/AcowfM/a est, longe lateque pa 
tens. Vt: " Quorsum ordo sacerdotum, quum 
loannes (Apoc. v. 10) crimes nos vocaverit sa- 
cer dotes?" Etiam hoc addidit: " Regnabimus su 
per terrain." Quorsum ergo reges? Item: " Pro- 
pheta (Isai. LVIII. 6) celebrat ieiunium spiritale, 
hoc est, ab inveteratis criminibus abstinentiam. 
Valeat ergo ciborum delectus, et dierum praescrip- 
tio." Siccine? Igitur insanierunt Moyses, David, 
Elias, Baptistes, Apostoli, qui biduo, triduo, vel 

1 In i, p. q. 13, a. 2 ad 2. 


hebdomadis inediam terminarunt ; quae quidem, ut 
a crimine, debebat esse perpetua. Hoc quale sit, 
iam vidistis : propero. 

Quartum his adiicitur " Circulatio," in hunc mo- 
dum: Da mihi notas, inquam, Ecclesiae. " Ver- 
bum Dei et purissima Sacramenta." Haeccine sunt 
apud vos? " Quis dubitet?" Ego vero pernego. 
" Consule verbum Dei." Iam consului, minusque 
vobis, quam antea, faveo. " Attamen planum est." 
Proba mihi. " Quia nos ne latum quidem un- 
guem discedimus a verbo Dei." Vbi est acumen 
tuum? Semperne capies pro argumento illud ip- 
sum, quod ponitur in quaestione? Quoties hoc iam 
inculco? Num tu evigilas? Num faces admoven- 
dae sunt? Dico a te perperam exponi verbum Dei: 
testes habeo quindecim aetates, sta sententiae, non 
meae, non tuae, sed harum omnium. " Stabo sen 
tentiae verbi Dei: Spiritus ubi vult, spirat." Ec- 
cum, quos gyros, quas rotas fabricat. Hie nugator, 
tot verborum atque sophismatum architectus, nescio 
cui formidolosus esse queat, molestus erit fortasse. 
Molestiam vestra prudentia sublevabit, formidinem 
res eripuit. 


" Haec erit vobis directa via, ita ut stulti non 
errent per earn." 1 Quis enim, quamvis hebes in 
plebecula, dummodo salutis cupidus parumper at- 
tenderit, semitam Ecclesiae tarn egregie compla- 
natam, non videat, non teneat; vepres, et cautes, 

1 Isai. xxxv. 8. 


et avia detestatus? Erunt haec etiam rudibus ex- 
plorata, sicut Isaias vaticinatus est; vobis igitur, 
si voletis, exploratissima. 

COELITES. Theatrum universitatis rerum pona- 
mus ob oculos; quidquid est uspiam peragremus; 
omnia nobis argumenta suppeditant. Eamus in 
coelum: " Rosas 1 et lilia contemplemur," purpura- 
tos nempe martyrio, candidates innocentia. Ro- 
manos, inquam, Pontifices 2 tres et triginta con- 
tinenter occisos ; Pastores terris omnibus, qui suum 
pro Christi nomine sanguinem oppignerarunt ; gre- 
ges fidelium, qui Pastorum vestigiis institere; Di- 
vos omnes coelites, qui turbae hominum puritate 
et sanctimonia praeluxere. Nostros hie vixisse, 
nostros hinc emigrasse reperias. Noster fuit, ut 
paucula delibemus, ille martyrii sitientissimus Ig 
natius 3 " qui in rebus Ecclesiae neminem, ne regem 4 
quidem, aequavit Episcopo: qui traditiones 6 quas- 
dam Apostolicas, quarum testis ipse fuerat, ne dila- 
berentur, scripto mandavit." Noster anachoreta 
Telesphorus, 6 " qui ieiunium quadragesimale, san- 
citum ab Apostolis, observari severius iussit." Nos 
ter Irenaeus, 7 " qui a successione Cathedraque Ro- 
mana fidem Apostolicam declaravit." Noster 
etiam Victor Pontifex, " qui 8 Asiam edicto coer- 
cuit universam: " quod quum aliquibus, atque etiam 

1 Aug. serm. 37 de Sanct. 

2 Dam. in vit. Pont. Rom. 

3 Hier. cat. Script. 

4 Ign. epist. ad Smyrn. 

5 Euseb. 1. 3, c. 30. 

6 Dam. in vita Telesph. to. i con. c. stat. d. 5. 

7 Lib. 3, c. 3. 

8 Euseb. 5 hist. 24. 


huic Irenaeo, viro sacratissimo, videretur asperius, 
nemo tamen attenuavit, ut exoticam potestatem. 
Noster Polycarpus, * qui super quaestione Paschatis 
Romam adiit, cuius ambustas reliquias Smyrna col- 
legit, anniversario die rituque legitimo suum Epis- 
copum venerata. Nostri Cornelius et Cyprianus, 2 
aureum par Martyrum, ambo magni praesules ; sed 
maior ille, qui Romanus Africanum errorem res- 
ciderat; hie nobilitatus observantia, qua maiorem 
est prosequutus, amicissimum sui. Noster Sixtus, 1 
" cui ad aram solemnibus sacris operanti minis- 
trarunt e clero septemviri." Noster Laurentius, 
huius Archidiaconus, 4 quern adversarii de suis fastis 
eiiciunt, quem ante mille ducentos annos vir con- 
sularis Prudentius 5 sic ornavit: 

Quae sit potestas credita 

Et muneris quantum datum, 

Probant Quiritum gaudia, 

Quibus rogatus annuis. 
Hos inter, o Christi decus, 

Audi et poetam rusticum, 

Cordis fatentem crimina, 

Et facta prodentem sua. 
Audi benignus supplicem 

Christi reum, Prudentium. 

Nostrae virgines illae 6 perbeatae, Caecilia, Agatha, 
Anastasia, Barbara, Agnes, Lucia, Dorothea, Cath- 
arina ; quae decretam pudicitiam adversus et homi- 

1 Euseb. 4 hist. 13 et 14. 
2 Euseb. 7 hist. 2 interp. Ruff. 
8 Prud. in hym. de S. Laur. 

*Vid. Aug. Ser. i de S. Laur.; Ambr. 1. i offi, c. 41; 
Leo serm. in die S. Laur. 

5 Prud. in hym. de S. Laur. 

6 Metaph. ; Ambr. et alii. 


num et daemonum tyrannidem firmaverunt. Nos- 
tra Helena, quam dominicae Crucis inventio cele- 
bravit. Nostra Monica, quae moriens 1 orari et 
sacrificari pro se mortua ad altare Christi, religio- 
sissime flagitavit. Nostra Paula, 2 quae ex urbano 
palatio et opimis praediis in speluncam Bethleemi- 
ticam tantis itineribus peregrina cucurrit, ut ad 
Christi vagientis cunabula delitesceret. Nostri 
Paulus, Hilarion, Antonius, seniculi solitarii. Nos- 
ter Satyrus, 3 Ambrosii germanus f rater, qui tre- 
mendam illam hostiam circum se gestans in orario, 
naufragus insiliit in Oceanum, et fide plenissimus 
enatavit. Nostri Nicolaus et Martinus, episcopi, 
exerciti vigiliis, paludati ciliciis, ieiunio pasti. 
Noster Benedictus, tot monachorum pater. Chilia- 
das istas decennio non exsequerer. 

Sed nee illos repeto, quos in Ecclesiae Doctori- 
bus ante posueram. Memor sum brevitatis meae. 
Petat ista, qui volet, non solum ex abundanti veter- 
um historia, sed multo etiam magis ex gravissimis 
auctoribus, qui paene singuli Divos singulos me 
moriae 4 reliquerunt. Renuntiet mini, de chris- 
tianis illis antiquissimis et beatissimis quid autu- 
met? Vtrius doctrinae fuerint, catholicae, an lu- 
theranae? Testor Dei solium et illud tribunal, ad 
quod stabo rationem rationum harum et dicti et facti 
redditurus, aut nullum coelum esse, aut nostrorum 
esse; illud exsecramur, hoc ergo defigimus. 

1 Aug. 1. 6 confess, c. 7 ad 13. 

2 Hier. in epit. Paul. 

3 Ambr. in orat. fun. de Satyro. 

* Vide sex tomos Surii de vitis Sanct. 


DAMNATI. Nunc e contrario, si libet, inspicia- 
mus in Tartara. Cremantur incendio sempiterno. 
Qui? ludaei. Quam Ecclesiam adversati? Nos- 
tram. Qui? Ethnici. Quam Ecclesiam crudelis- 
sime persequuti? Nostram. Qui? Turcae. Quae 
templa demoliti? Nostra. Qui? Haeretici. 
Cuius Ecclesiae perduelles? Nostrae. Quae enim 
Ecclesia praeter nostram omnibus inferorum portis 1 
se opposuit? 

IVDAEI. Quum, pulsis Hebraeis, Christiani 2 
succrescerent Hierosolymis, Deum immortalem ! 
qui concursus hominum ad loca sacra fuit, 3 quae 
urbis religio, quae sepulcri, quae praesepii, quae 
crucis, quae monumentorum omnium, quibus velut 
exuviis mariti, Ecclesia sponsa delectatur? Hinc 
manavit in nos ludaeorum odium ferum et im- 
placabile. Queruntur etiam mine, maiores nostros 
maioribus suis exitio fuisse. A Simone Mago et 
lutheranis nullum ictum acceperunt. 

ETHNICI. In Ethnicis violentissimi fuere, qui 
toto Imperio, tre!centis annis, per intervalla tem- 
porum, aerumnosissima Christianis supplicia ma- 
chinati sunt. Quibus? Patribus et filiis nostrae 
fidei. Cognoscite vocem tyranni, qui Divum Laur- 
entium torruit in craticula: 4 

Huric esse vestris Orgiis 

Moremque et artem, proditum est; 
Hanc disciplinam foederis, 
Libent ut auro antistites. 

1 Matth. xv. 1 8. 
8 Euseb. 4 hist. 5. 

Hieron, in epit. Paul, et passim in epist. 
4 Prudent, in hym. de S. Laur. 


Argenteis scyphis ferunt 
Fumare sacrum sanguinem, 
Auroque nocturnis sacris 
Adstare fixos cereos. 

Tune cura summa est fratribus, 
(Vt sermo testatur loquax), 
Offerre, fundis venditis, 
Sestertiorum millia. 

Addicta avorum praedia 
Foedis sub auctionibus 
Successor exhaeres gemit, 
Sanctis egens parentibus. 

Haec occulantur abditis 
Ecclesiarum in angulis; 
Et summa pietas creditur 
Nudare dulces liberos. 

Deprome thesauros, mails 
Suadendo quos praestigiis 
Exaggerates obtines, 
Nigrantes quos claudis specu. 

Hoc poscit usus publicus; 
Hoc fiscus, hoc aerarium, 
Vt dedita stipendiis 
Ducem iuvet pecunia. 

Sic dogma vestrum est, audio; 
" Suum quibusque reddito." 
En Caesar agnoscit suum 
Numisma, nummis inditum. 

Quod Caesaris scis, Caesari 
Da: nempe iustum postulo, 
Ni fallor; baud ullam tuus 
Signat Deus pecuniam. 

Nee quum veniret, aureos 
Secum Philippos detulit; 
Praecepta sed verbis dedit 
Inanis a marsupio. 

Implete dictorum fidem, 

Quae vos per orbem venditis, 
Nummos libenter reddite; 
Estote verbis divites. 


Quis videtur? In quos furit? Cuius Ecclesiae sa 
cra, lychnos, ritus, ornamenta convellit? Cui pa- 
tellas aureas, et argenteos calices, et sumptuosa 
donaria, et opulentam gazam invidet? Profecto 
lutherizat. Quod enim aliud velum suo latrocinio 
nostri Nemrodes 1 obtenderunt, quum depecularen- 
tur ecclesias, et Christ! patrimonium dissiparent? 
Contra vero magnus ille Constantinus Christomas- 
tigon terror, quam Ecclesiam tranquillavit? 1 11am, 
cui Pontifex Sylvester praefuit, 2 quern in Soracte 
latitantem accersiit, ut eius opera nostro baptismate 
tingeretur. Quibus auspiciis victor? Signo cru- 
cis. 3 Qua matre gloriosus? Helena. Quibus se 
patribus adiunxit? Nicaenis. Cuiusmodi? Vt 
Sylvestro, ut Marco, ut lulio, ut Athanasio, ut Ni- 
colao. Cuius se precibus 4 commendavit? Antonii. 
Quam sellam postulavit 5 in Synodo? Vltimam. 
O quanto regalior hac sede, quam qui regis titu- 
lum, non debitum, ambierunt ! Singula narrare 
longum est. Sed ex his duobus altero nobis infes- 
tissimo, altero nobis amicissimo, licebit singula 
coniicere, quae sunt horum simillima. Etenim, ut 
nostrorum ilia fuit Epistasis turbulenta, sic nos- 
trorum haec evasit divina Catastrophe. 

TVRCAE. Turcica videamus. Mahometes et 
Sergius monachus apostata in profundo barathro 
iacent ululantes, et suis et posterorum sceleribus 

1 Gen. x. 9. 

2 Dam. in Sylv.; Niceph. 1. 7, c. 33; Zonaras, Cedremus. 

3 Euseb. 1. 2 de vit. Const, c. 7, 8, 9; Sozom. 1. I, 
c. 8, 9. 

4 Athan. in vita S. Ant. 

5 Theod. 1. i, hist. cap. 7, 



onusti. Haec portentosa et efferata bellua, Sar- 
raceni, Turcae, nisi a nostris ordinibus militiae 
sacrae, 1 nisi a nostris principibus et populis ac- 
cisa fuisset ac repressa, per Lutherum quidem, (cui 
gratias hoc nomine Solymanus Turcus litteris egisse 
dicitur), et per lutheranos regulos (quibus Tur- 
corum progressio laetabilis existimatur) ; haec, in- 
quam, Erinnys f uriosa et exitiosa mortalibus, totam 
iam depopularetur et vastaret Europam ; neque in- 
diligentius altaria et signa crucis, quam ipse Cal- 
vinus everteret. Ergo nostri hostes illi sunt proprii, 
utpote nostrorum industria a christianorum iugulis 

HAERETICI. Despectemus in haereticos, faeces, 
et folles, et alimenta gehennae. Primus occurrit 
Simon Magus. Quid ille? " Eripiebat homini li- 
beram 2 voluntatem; solam fidem 3 percrepabat." 
Mox Novatianus: Quis? Antipapa Cornelio, 4 Pon- 
tifici Romano, " hostis sacramentorum poenitentiae 
et chrismatis." 5 Deinde Manes Persa: hie doce- 
bat " baptismum salutem 6 non conferre." Post 
Aerius Arianus " preces damnabat pro mortuis, 7 
confundebat episcopis sacerdotes." Hinc Aerius 
" solam 8 et ipse fidem personabat," cognominatus 
atheos 9 non minus quam Lucianus. Sequitur Vi- 

!Vid. Volate, lovium Aemilium 1. 8, Blond. 1. 9 de 2. 

2 Clem. 1. i, recog. 

3 Iren. 1. I, c. 2. 

*Cypr. ep. ad lubatam et I. 4 ep. 2. 

5 Theod. de fab. haeret. 

"Aug. haer. 46, 53, 54. 

7 Epiph. haer. 75. 

8 Aug. haer. 54. 

9 Socr. 1. 2, c. 28. 


gilantius/ qui " Divos orari non ferebat:" ac 
lovinianus, qui " virginitatem et nuptias aequipara- 
bat." Denique colluvies universa Macedonius, 
Pelagius, Nestorius, Entyches, Monothelitae, Ico- 
nomachi, caeteri, quibus Lutherum et Calvinum 
posteritas aggregabit. Quid isti? Omnes mali 
corvi, eodem ovo geniti, ab Ecclesiae nostrae 
Praesulibus desciverunt, ab illis evicti et exinaniti 

Deseramus avernum, reddamur terris. Quocum- 
que me oculis et cogitatione convertero, sive Pa- 
triarchas intueor et sedes Apostolicas, sive Antis- 
tites caeterarum gentium, sive laudatos principes, 
reges, caesares, sive christianorum cuiusque nationis 
initia, sive ullum iudicium vetustatis, aut lumen 
rationis, aut honestatis decus; nostrae fidei ser- 
viunt et suffragantur omnia. 

SEDES APOSTOLICA. Testis Romana successio, 
" In qua semper Ecclesia, (ut cum Augustino ep. 
162 loquar), Apostolicae Cathedrae viguit prin- 
cipatus." Testes illae reliquae sedes apostolicae, 
in quas hoc nomen insignite convenit, quod ab ipsis 
Apostolis horumve auditoribus exaedificatae 2 fue- 

tium pastores, loco dissiti, religione nostra con- 
cordes, Ignatius et Chrysostomus, Antiochiae; 
Petrus, Alexander, Athanasius, Theophilus, Alexan- 
driae; Macharius et Cyrillus, Hierosolymis ; Pro- 
clus, Constantinopoli ; Gregorius et Basilius, in 

1 Hier. in lovin. et Vigilant.; Aug. haer. 82. 

2 Vid. Tert. de praescr.; Aug. 1. 2 de doctr. christ. c. 8. 


Cappadocia; Thaumaturgus, in Ponto; Smyrnae, 
Polycarpus; lustinus, Athenis; Dionysius, Corin- 
thi; Gregorius, Nissae; Methodius, Tyri; Ephre- 
mus, in Cyria; Cyprianus, Optatus, Augustinus, in 
Africa; Epiphanius, in Cypro; Andreas, Cretae ; 
Ambrosius, Paulinus, Gaudentius, Prosper, Faus- 
tus, Vigiliusin Italia; Irenaeus, Martinus, Hilarius, 
Eucherius, Gregorius, Salvianus, in Gallia ; Vincen- 
tius, Orosius, Ildefonsus, Leander, Isidorus, in His- 
pania; in Britannia, Fugatius, Damianus, Justus, 
Mellitus, Beda. Denique, ne ambitiosus videar in 
nominibus, quaecumque vel opera, vel fragmenta 
supersunt eorum, qui disiunctissimis terris Evan- 
gelium severunt, omnia nobis unam fidem exhibent, 
quam hodie catholici profitemur. Christe, quid 
causae tibi afferam, quo minus me de tuis exter- 
mines, si tot luminibus Ecclesiae tenebricosos ho- 
mulos, paucos, indoctos, dissectos, improbos, ante- 

PRINCIPES. Testes item principes, reges, cae- 
sares, horumque respublicae, quorum et ipsorum 
pietas, et ditionum populi, et pacis bellique dis- 
ciplina se penitus in hac nostra doctrina catholica 
fundaverunt. Hie ergo quos ab oriente Theodo- 
sios, quos ab occidente Carolos, quos Eduardos ex 
Anglia, Ludovicos e Gallia, Hermenegildos ex 
Hispania, Henricos a Saxonia, Wenceslaos e Bohe 
mia, Leopoldos ex Austria, Stephanos ex Hungaria, 
losaphatos ex India, quos orbe toto dynastas atque 
toparchas possim arcessere ; qui exemplo, qui armis 
qui legibus, qui sollicitudine, qui sumptu, nostram 
Ecclesiam nutrierunt? Sic enim praecinuit Isaias 


(xlix. 23) : " Erunt reges nutricii tui, et reginae 
nutrices tuae." Audi, Elisabetha, Regina potentis- 
sima, tibi canit, te tuas partes edocet. Narro tibi: 
Calvinum et hos principes unum coelum capere non 
potest. His ergo te principibus adiunge, dignam 
maioribus, dignam ingenio, dignam litteris, dignam 
laudibus, dignam fortuna tua. Solum hoc de te 
molior ego et moliar, quidquid me fiet, cui, tam- 
quam hosti capitis tui, toties iam isti patibulum 
ominantur. Salve bona crux. Veniet, Elisabetha, 
dies ille, ille dies, qui tibi liquido commonstrabit, 
utri te dilexerint, Societas lesu, an Lutheri pro 
genies. Pergo. 

iam omne sorae plagaeque mundi, quibus evange- 
lica tuba post Christum natum insonuit. Parumne 
hoc fuit, idolis ora claudere, Dei regnum gentibus 
importare? Christum Lutherus, catholici Christum 
loquimur. " Num divisus est Christus? "* Minime. 
Aut nos, aut ille, falsum Christum loquimur. Quid 
ergo? Dicam. Christus ille sit, et illorum sit, quo 
Dagon 2 invecto cervices fregerit. Noster Christus 
opera nostrorum uti voluit, quum loves, Mercuries, 
Dianas, Phaebadas, et illam noctem saeculorum 
atram, Erebumque tristem, e tot populorum cord- 
ibus relegaret. Non est otium longinqua perqui- 
rere ; finitima tantum atque domestica speculemur. 
Hiberni ex Patritio, Scoti ex Palladio, Angli ex 
Augustino, Romae sacratis, Roma missis, Romam 
venerantibus, fidem aut nullam, aut certe nostram, 

1 i Cor. i. 13. 

2 l Reg. v. 4. 


id est, catholicam insuxerunt. Res aperta. Curro. 
CVMVLVS TESTIVM. Testes academiae, testes 
legum tabulae, testes vernaculi mores hominum, 
testes selectio caesarum et inauguratio, testes regum 
ritus et inunctio, testes equitum ordines, ipsaeque 
chlamydes, testes fenestrae, testes nummi, testes 
urbanae portae domusque civicae, testes avorum 
fructus et vita, testes res omnes et reculae, nullam 
in orbe religionem, nisi nostram, imis umquam rad- 
icibus insedisse. 

Quae mihi quum suppeterent, et certe sic efficerent 
meditantem, ut his omnibus nuntium remittere chri- 
stianis, et consociari cum perditissimis quibusque, 
videretur insolentis insaniae; non diffiteor, anima- 
tus sum et incensus ad conflictum, in quo nisi Divi 
de coelo deturbentur, et superbus Lucifer coelum 
recuperet, cadere numquam potero. Quo mihi sit 
aequior Charcus, qui me tarn immaniter concerpit, 
si hanc animulam peccatricem, quam tanti Christus 
emit, viae tutae, viae certae, viae regiae malui cre 
dere, quam Calvinis scopulis dumetisve suspendere. 


Habetis a me, florentes Academici, hoc munus- 
culum, contextum operis in itinere subcisivis. Ani 
mus fuit et purgare me vobis de arrogantia, et 
satisfacere de fiducia, et interim dum ab adver- 
sariis una mecum in scholas invitemini, quaedam 
apponere degustanda. Si aequam, si tutum, si 
honestum ducitis, haberi Lutherum, aut Calvinum, 
canonem Scripturae, mentem sancti Spiritus, nor- 
mam Ecclesiae, Conciliorum Patrumque paedago- 


gum, omnium denique testium et saeculorum Deum, 
nihil est quod sperem, vobis lectoribus vel auditor- 
ibus. Sin estis ii, quos apud animum formavi 
meum, philosophi occulati, amatores veri, simpli- 
citatis, modestiae; hostes temeritatis, nugarum, 
sophismatum; facile diem in aprico videbitis, qui 
dieculam angusta rima dispicitis. Dicam libere, 
quod meus in vos amor, et vestrum periculum et 
rei magnitude postulat. Non hoc nescit diabolus, 
vos istam lucem, si quando coeperitis oculos at- 
tolere, conspecturos. Cuius enim stuporis fuerit, 
antiquitati christianae Hammeros et Charcos ante- 
ponere? Sed sunt quaedam illecebrae lutheranae, 
quibus suum ille regnum amplificat, quibus ille 
tendiculis hamatus multos iani vestri ordinis 
inescavit. Quaenam? Aurum, gloria, deliciae, 
veneres. Contemnite. Quid enim aliud ista sunt, 
nisi terrarum ilia, canorus aer, propina vermium, 
bella sterquilinia? Spernite. Christus dives est, 
qui vos alet; Rex est, qui ornabit; lautus est, qui 
satiabit; speciosus est, qui felicitatum omnium 
cumulos largietur. Huic vos adscribite militant!, 
ut cum eo triumphos, vere doctissimi vereque clari- 
ssimi, reportetis. Valete. Cosmopoli 1581. 



This is no dry controversial divinity, but a sort 
of illuminated copy of theses, the call of a knight s 
trumpet challenging his antagonist to come forth. 
The Ten Reasons represent the ten theses, which 
Edmund Campion would fain have maintained in 
the Divinity School at Oxford against all comers, 
sharing, as he did to the full, the passion which his 
age felt and seems entirely to have lost, for 
such intellectual tournaments, as the natural 
means to bring out the truth and compose religious 
differences. The reader, then, must not be sur 
prised to find in this little work quite as much of 
rhetoric as of logic ; if he is unfriendly, he may say 
considerably more. Nor, if he knows anything of 
the controversial methods of the sixteenth century, 
will he be surprised at the vehemence of the lan 
guage. Compared with his opponents, Luther for 
example, Edmund Campion is mere milk and 
honey. His book made a great stir: it is what a 
successful book must be, instinct with the spirit 
of the age in which and for which it was written. 

The Protestant answer to the Ten Reasons was 
not given in the Divinity School at Oxford. It was 
the rack in the Tower, and the gibbet at Tyburn; 
and that answer was returned ere the year was out. 


Popfs Hall, Oxford, 
May 1910. 



Edmund Campion, to the Learned Members of the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, Greeting. 

Last year, Gentlemen, when in accordance with 
my calling in life I returned under orders to this 
Island, I found on the shore of England not a little 
wilder waves than those I had recently left behind 
me in the British Seas. As thereupon I made my 
way into the interior of England, I had no more 
familiar sight than that of unusual executions, no 
greater certainty than the uncertainty of threat 
ening dangers. I gathered my wits together as 
best I could, remembering the cause which I was 
serving and the times in which I lived. And lest 
I might perhaps be arrested before I had got a 
hearing from any one, I at once put my purpose 
in writing, stating who I was, what was my errand, 
what war I thought of declaring and upon whom. 
I kept the original document on my person, that 
it might be taken with me, if I were taken. I 
deposited a copy with a friend, and this copy, 
without my knowledge, was shown to many. Ad 
versaries took very ill the publication of the paper. 
What they particularly disliked and blamed was 
my having offered to hold the field alone against 
all comers in this matter of religion, though to be 
sure I should not have been alone had I disputed 
under a public safe conduct. Hanmer and Chartres 
have replied to my demands. What is the tenour 
of their reply? All off the point. The only honest 


answer for them to give is one they will never give : 
" We embrace the conditions, the Queen pledges 
her word, come at once." Meanwhile they fill the 
air with their cries : " Your conspiracy ! your sedi 
tious proceedings ! your arrogance ! traitor ! aye 
marry, traitor! The whole thing is absurd. 
These men are not fools: why are they wasting 
their pains and damaging their own reputation? 
Nevertheless, in reply to these two gentlemen (one 
of whom has chosen my paper to run at for his 
amusement, the other more maliciously has con 
fused the whole issue) there has recently been pre 
sented a very clear memorial setting forth all that 
need be said about our Society and their calumnies 
and the part that we are taking. The only course 
left open to me (since as I see, it is tortures, not 
academic disputations, that the high-priests are 
making ready) was to make good to you the account 
of my conduct; to show you the chief heads and 
point my finger to the sources from whence I derive 
this confidence; to exhort you also, as it is your 
concern above others, to give to this business that 
attention which Christ, the Church, the Common 
Weal, and your own salvation demand of you. If 
it were confidence in my own talents, erudition, art, 
reading, memory, that led me to challenge all the 
skill that could be brought against me, then were 
I the vainest and proudest of mortals, not having 
considered either myself or my opponents. But if, 
with my cause before my eyes, I thought myself 
competent to show that the sun here shines at noon 
day, you ought to allow in me that heat which the 


honour of Jesus Christ, my King, and the uncon- 
quered force of truth have put upon me.) You 
know how in Marcus Tullius s speech for Fublius 
Quintius, when Roscius promised that he should 
win the case if he could make out by arguments 
that a journey of 700 miles had not been accom 
plished in two days, Cicero not only had no fear of 
all the force of the pleading of the opposing coun 
sel, Hortensius, but could not have been afraid even 
of greater orators than Hortensius, men of the stamp 
of Cotta and Antonius and Crassus, whose reputa 
tion for speaking he set higher than that of all other 
men : for truth does sometimes stand out in so clear 
a light that no artifice of word or deed can hide it. 
Now the case on our side is clearer even than that 
position of Roscius. /I have only to evince this, 
that there is a Heaven, that there is a God, that 
there is a Faith, that there is a Christ, and I have 
gained my cause. Standing on such ground should 
I not pluck up heart? I may be killed, beaten I \ 
cannot be. I take my stand on those Doctors, whom 
that Spirit has instructed who is neither deceived 
nor overcome I beg of you, consent to be saved. 
Of those from whom I obtain this consent I expect 
without the least doubt that all the rest will follow. 
Only give yourselves up to take interest in this in 
quiry, entreat Christ, add efforts of your own, and 
certainly you will perceive how the case lies, how 
our adversaries are in despair, and ourselves so 
solidly founded that we cannot but desire this con 
flict with serene and high courage. I am brief 
here, because I address you in the rest of my dis 
course. Farewell. 



Of the many signs that tell of the adversaries 
mistrust of their own cause, none declares it so 
loudly as the shameful outrage they put upon the 
majesty of the Holy Bible. After they have dis 
missed with scorn the utterances and suffrages of 
the rest of the witnesses, they are nevertheless 
brought to such straits that they cannot hold their 
own otherwise than by laying violent hands on the 
divine volumes themselves, thereby showing beyond 
all question that they are brought to their last 
stand, and are having recourse to the hardest and 
most extreme of expedients to retrieve their des 
perate and ruined fortunes. What induced the 
Manichees to tear out the Gospel of Matthew and 
the Acts of the Apostles? Despair. For these 
volumes were a torment to men who denied Christ s 
birth of a Virgin, and who pretended that the 
Spirit then first descended upon Christians when 
their peculiar Paraclete, a good-for-nothing Per 
sian, made his appearance. What induced the 
Ebionites to reject all St. Paul s Epistles? Des 
pair. For while those Letters kept their credit, 
the custom of circumcision, which these men had 
reintroduced, was set aside as an anachronism. 
What induced that crime-laden apostate Luther to 
call the Epistle of James contentious, turgid, arid, 
a thing of straw, and unworthy of the Apostolic 
spirit? Despair. For by this writing the wretched 


man s argument of righteousness consisting in 
faith alone was stabbed through and rent assunder. 
What induced Luther s whelps to expunge off-hand 
from the genuine canon of Scripture, Tobias, 
Ecclesiasticus, Maccabees, and, for hatred of 
these, several other books involved in the same 
false charge? Despair. For by these Oracles they 
are most manifestly confuted whenever they argue 
about the patronage of Angels, about free will, 
about the faithful departed, about the intercession 
of Saints. Is it possible? So much perversity, 
so much audacity? After trampling underfoot 
Church, Councils, Episcopal Sees, Fathers, Mar 
tyrs, Potentates, Peoples, Laws, Universities, His 
tories, all vestiges of Antiquity and Sanctity, and 
declaring that they would settle their disputes by 
the written word of God alone, to think that they 
should have emasculated that same Word, which 
alone was left, by cutting out of the whole body so 
many excellent and goodly parts ! Seven whole 
books, to ignore lesser diminutions, have the Cal- 
vinists cut out of the Old Testament. The 
Lutherans take away the Epistle of James 
besides, and, in their dislike of that, five other 
Epistles, about which there had been controversy 
of old in certain places and times. To the number 
of these the latest authorities at Geneva add the 
book of Esther and about three chapters of Daniel, 
which their fellow-disciples, the Anabaptists, had 
some time before condemned and derided. How 
much greater was the modesty of Augustine (De 
doct. Christ, lib. 2, c. 8.), who, in making his cata- 


logue of the Sacred Books, did not take for his rule 
the Hebrew Alphabet, like the Jews, nor private 
judgment, like the Sectaries, but that Spirit where 
with Christ animates the whole Church. The 
Church, the guardian of this treasure, not its 
mistress (as heretics falsely make out), vindicated 
publicly in former times by very ancient Councils 
this entire treasure, which the Council of Trent 
has taken up and embraced. Augustine also in a 
special discussion on one small portion of Scripture 
cannot bring himself to think that any man s rash 
murmuring should be permitted to thrust out of 
the Canon the book of Wisdom, which even in his 
time had obtained a sure place as a well-authen 
ticated and Canonical book in the reckoning of the 
Church, the judgment of ages, the testimony of 
ancients, and the sense of the faithful. What 
would he say now if he were alive on earth, and 
saw men like Luther and Calvin manufacturing 
Bibles, filing down Old and New Testament with 
a neat pretty little file of their own, setting aside, 
not the book of wisdom alone, but with it very 
many others from the list of Canonical Books? 
Thus whatever does not come out from their shop, 
by a mad decree, is liable to be spat upon by all 
as a rude and barbarous composition. They who 
have stooped to this dire and execrable way of 
saving themselves surely are beaten, overthrown, 
and flung rolling in the dust, for all their fine 
praises that are in the mouths of their admirers, 
for all their traffic in priesthoods, for all their 
bawling in pulpits, for all their sentencing of 


Catholics to chains, rack and gallows. Seated in 
their armchairs as censors, as though any one had 
elected them to that office, they seize their pens 
and mark passages as spurious even in God s own 
Holy Writ, putting their pens through whatever 
they cannot stomach. Can any fairly educated man 
be afraid of battalions of such enemies? If in 
the midst of your learned body they had recourse 
to such trickster s arts, calling like wizards upon 
their familiar spirit, you would shout at them, 
you would stamp your feet at them. For instance 
I would ask them what right they have to rend and 
mutilate the body of the Bible. They would 
answer that they do not cut out true Scriptures, 
but prune away supposititious accretions. By auth 
ority of what judge? By the Holy Ghost. This 
is the answer prescribed by Calvin (Instit. lib. 
i, c. 7), for escaping this judgment of the Church 
whereby spirits of prophesy are examined. Why 
then do some of you tear out one piece of Scrip 
ture, and others another, whereas you all boast of 
being led by the same Spirit? The Spirit of the 
Calvinists receives six Epistles which do not please 
the Lutheran Spirit, both all the while in full 
confidence reposing on the Holy Ghost. The 
Anabaptists call the book of Job a fable, inter 
mixed with tragedy and comedy. How do they 
know? The Spirit has taught them. Whereas the 
Song of Solomon is admired by Catholics as a 
paradise of the soul, a hidden manna, and rich 
delight in Christ, Castalio, a lewd rogue, has rec 
koned it nothing better than a love-song about a 


mistress, and an amorous conversation with Court 
flunkeys. Whence drew he that intimation? From 
the Spirit. In the Apocalypse of John, every jot 
and tittle of which Jerane declares to bear some 
lofty and magnificent meaning, Luther and Brent 
and Kemnitz, critics hard to please, find something 
wanting, and are inclined to throw over the whole 
book. Whom have they consulted? The Spirit. 
Luther with preposterous heat pits the Four Gospels 
one against another (Praef. in Nov. Test.}, and 
far prefers Paul s Epistles to the first three, while 
he declares the Gospel of St. John above the rest 
to be beautiful, true, and worthy of mention in the 
first place, thereby enrolling even the Apostles, so 
far as in him lay, as having a hand in his; 
quarrels. Who taught him to do that? The Spirit. 
Nay this imp of a friar has not hesitated in petu 
lant style to assail Luke s Gospel because therein 
good and virtuous works are frequently commended 
to us. Whom did he consult? The Spirit. Theo 
dore Beza has dared to carp at, as a corruption 
and perversion of the original, that mystical word 
from the twenty-second chapter of Luke, this is 
the chalice, the new testament in my blood, which 
(chalice) shall be shed for you Trorrjpiov eKyyvb- 
/JLCVOV, because this language admits of no explana 
tion other than that of the wine in the chalice 
being converted into the true blood of Christ. Who 
pointed that out? The Spirit. In short, in believing 
all things every man in the faith of his own spirit, 
they horribly belie and blaspheme the name of the 
Holy Ghost. So acting, do they not give them- 


selves away? are they not easily refuted? In an 
assembly of learned men, such as yours, Gentle 
men of the University, are they not caught and 
throttled without trouble? Should I be afraid on 
behalf of the Catholic faith to dispute with these 
men, who have handled with the utmost ill faith 
not human but heavenly utterances? I say nothing 
here of their perverse versions of Scripture, 
though I could accuse them in this respect of 
intolerable doings. I will not take the bread out 
of the mouth of that great linguist, my fellow- 
Collegian, Gregory Martin, who will do this work 
with more learning and abundance of detail than I 
could ; nor from others whom I understand already 
to have that task in hand. More wicked and 
more abominable is the crime that I am now prose 
cuting, that there have been found upstart Doctors 
who have made a drunken onslaught on the hand 
writing that is of heaven; who have given judg 
ment against it as being in many places defiled, 
defective, false, surreptitious; who have corrected 
some passages, tampered with others; torn out 
others; who have converted every bulwark where 
with it was guarded into Lutheran " spirits," what 
I may call phantom ramparts and parted walls. 
All this they have done that they might not be 
utterly dumbfounded by falling upon Scripture 
texts contrary to their errors, texts which they 
would have found jt as hard to get over as to 
swallow hot ashes or chew stones. This then has 
been my First Reason, a strong and a just 
one. By revealing the shadowy and broken 


powers of the adverse faction, it has certainly given 
new courage to a Christian man, not unversed in 
these studies, to fight for the Letters Patent of the 
Eternal King against the remnant of a routed foe. 



Another thing to incite me to the encounter, and 
to disparage in my eyes the poor forces of the 
enemy, is the habit of mind which they continually 
display in their exposition of the Scriptures, full of 
deceit, void of wisdom. As philosophers, you 
would seize these points at once. Therefore I have 
desired to have you for my audience. Suppose, for 
example, we ask our adversaries on what ground 
they have concocted that novel and sectarian 
opinion which banishes Christ from the Mystic Sup 
per. If they name the Gospel, we meet them 
promptly. On our side are the words, this is my 
body, this is my blood. This language seemed 
to Luther himself so forcible, that for all his strong 
desire to turn Zwinglian, thinking by that means 
to make it most awkward for the Pope, nevertheless 
he was caught and fast bound by this most open 
context, and gave in to it {Luther, epistol. ad Ar 
gent.}, and confessed Christ truly present in the 
Most Holy Sacrament no less unwillingly than the 
demons of old, overcome by His miracles, cried 
aloud that He was Christ, the Son of God. Well 
then, the written text gives us the advantage: the 
dispute now turns on the sense of what is written, 


Let us examine this from the words in the context, 
my body which is given for you, my blood which 
shall be shed for many. Still the explanation on 
Calvin s side is most hard, on ours easy and quite 

What further? Compare the Scriptures, they 
say, one with another. By all means. The Gos 
pels agree, Paul concurs. The words, the clauses, 
the whole sentence reverently repeat living bread, 
signal miracle, heavenly food, flesh, body, blood. 
There is nothing enigmatical, nothing befogged 
with a mist of words. Still our adversaries hold 
on and make no end of altercation. What are we 
to do? I presume, Antiquity should be heard; 
and what we, two parties suspect of one another, 
cannot settle, let it be settled by the decision of 
venerable ancient men of all past ages, as being 
nearer Christ and further removed from this con 
tention. They cannot stand that, they protest that 
they are being betrayed, they appeal to the word 
of God pure and simple, they turn away from the 
comments of men. Treacherous and fatuous ex 
cuse. We urge the word of God, they darken the 
meaning of it. We appeal to the witness of the 
Saints as interpreters, they withstand them. In 
short their position is that there shall be no trial,, 
unless you stand by the judgment of the accused 
party. And so they behave in every controversy 
which we start. On infused grace, on inherent 
justice, on the visible Church, on the necessity of 
Baptism, on Sacraments and Sacrifice, on the 
merits of the good, on hope and fear, on the differ- 


ence of guilt in sins, on the authority of Peter, on 
the keys, on vows, on the evangelical counsels, on 
other such points, we Catholics have cited and dis 
cussed Scripture texts not a few, and of much 
weight, everywhere in books, in meetings, in 
churches, in the Divinity School : they have eluded 
them. We have brought to bear upon them the 
scholia of the ancients, Greek and Latin : they have 
refused them. What then is their refuge? Doctor 
Martin Luther, or else Philip (Melancthon), or any 
how Zwingle, or beyond doubt Calvin and Besa 
have faithfully laid down the facts. Can I suppose 
any of you to be so dull of sense as not to perceive 
this artifice when he is told of it? Wherefore I 
must confess how earnestly I long for the Univer 
sity Schools as a place where, with you looking 
on, I could call those carpet-knights out of their 
delicious retreats into the heat and dust of action, 
and break their power, not by any strength of my 
own, for I am not comparable, not one per cent., 
with the rest of our people, but by force of a 
strong case and most certain truth. 



At hearing the name of the Church the enemy 
has turned pale. Still he has devised some ex 
planation which I wish you to notice, that you may 
observe the ruinous and poverty-stricken estate of 
falsehood. He was well aware that in the Scrip 
tures, as well of Prophets as of Apostles, every- 


where there is made honourable mention of the 
Church: that it is called the holy city, the fruit 
ful vine, the high mountain, the straight way, the 
only dove, the kingdom of heaven, the spouse and 
body of Christ, the ground of truth, the multitude 
to whom the Spirit has been promised and into 
whom He breathes all truths that make for salva 
tion; her on whom, taken as a whole, the devil s 
jaws are never to inflict a deadly bite ; her against 
whom whoever rebels, however much he preach 
Christ with his mouth, has no more hold on Christ 
than the publican or the heathen. Such a loud 
pronouncement he dared not gainsay; he would 
not seem rebellious against a Church of which the 
Scriptures make such frequent mention : so he cun 
ningly kept the name, while by his definition he 
utterly abolished the thing, He has depicted the 
Church with such properties as altogether hide her 
away, and leave her open to the secret gaze of a 
very few men, as though she were removed from 
the senses, like a Platonic Idea. They only could 
discern her, who by a singular inspiration had got 
the faculty of grasping with their intelligence this 
aerial body, and with keen eye regarding the mem 
bers of such a company. 

What has become of candour and straightfor 
wardness? What Scripture texts or Scripture 
meanings or authorities of Fathers thus portray the 
Church? There are letters of Christ to the Asiatic 
Churches (Apoc. i. 3), letters of Peter, Paul, John, 
and others to various Churches; frequent mention 
in the Acts of the Apostles of the origin and spread 


of Churches. What of these Churches? Were 
they visible to God alone and holy men, or to 
Christians of every rank and degree? But, doubt 
less, necessity is a hard weapon. Pardon these 
subterfuges. Throughout the whole course of fif 
teen centuries these men find neither town, village, 
nor household professing their doctrine, until an 
unhappy monk by an incestuous marriage had 
deflowered a virgin vowed to God, or a Swiss 
gladiator had conspired against his country, or a 
branded runaway had occupied Geneva. These 
people, if they want to have a Church at all, are 
compelled to crack up a Church all hidden away ; 
and to claim parents whom they themselves have 
never known, and no mortal has ever set eyes on. 
Perhaps they glory in the ancestry of men whom 
every one knows to have been heretics, such as 
Aerius, Jovinianus, Vigilantius, Helvidius, Beren- 
garius, the Waldenses, the Lollards, WyclifTe, 
Huss, of whom they have begged sundry poisonous 
fragments of dogmas. Wonder not that I have 
no fear of their empty talk : once I can meet them 
in the noon- day, I shall have no trouble in dis 
pelling such vapourings. Our conversation with 
them would take this line. Tell me, do you sub 
scribe to the Church which flourished in bygone 
ages? Certainly. Let us traverse, then, different 
countries and periods. What Church? The 
assembly of the faithful. What faithful? Their 
names are unknown, but it is certain that there 
have been many of them. Certain? to whom is it 
certain? To God Who says so! We, who have 


been taught of God stuff and nonsense, how am I 
to believe it? If you had the fire of faith in you, 
you would know it as well as you know you 
are alive. Let in as spectators, could you withhold 
your laughter? To think that all Christians should 
be bidden to join the Church; to beware of being 
cut down by the spiritual sword; to keep peace in 
the house of God ; to trust their soul to the Church 
as to the pillar of truth ; to lay all their complaints 
before the Church; to hold for heathen all 
who are cast out of the Church ; and that neverthe 
less so many men for so many centuries should 
not know where the Church is or who belong to 
it I This much only they prate in the darkness, 
that wherever the Church is, only Saints and per 
sons destined for heaven are contained in it. Hence 
it follows that whoever wishes to withdraw himself 
from the authority of his ecclesiastical superior has 
only to persuade himself that the priest has fallen 
into sin and is quite cut off from the Church. 
Knowing as I did that the adversaries were in 
venting these fictions, contrary to the customary 
sense of the Churches in all ages, and that, having 
lost the whole substance, they still wished in their 
difficulties to retain the name, I took comfort in 
the thought of your sagacity, and so promised 
myself that, as soon as ever you had cognisance of 
such artifices by their own confession, you would 
at once like men of mark and intelligence rend 
asunder the web of foolish sophistry woven for 
your undoing. 



In the infant Church a grave question about 
lawful ceremonies, which troubled the minds of 
believers, was solved by the gathering of a Council 
of Apostles and elders. The Children believed 
their parents, the sheep their shepherds, com 
manding in their words, // hath seemed good to 
the Hvly Ghost and to us (Acts xv). There fol 
lowed for the extirpation of various heresies in 
various several ages, four (Ecumenical Councils of 
the ancients, the doctrine whereof was so well 
established that a thousand years ago (see St. 
Gregory the Great s Epistles, lib. i. cap. 24) sin 
gular honour was paid to it as to an utterance of 
God. I will travel no further abroad. Even in 
our home, in Parliament (ann. i Elisabeth), the 
same Councils keep their former right and their 
dignity inviolate. These I will cite, and I will 
call thee, England, my sweet country, to witness. 
If, as thou professest, thou wilt reverence these four 
Councils, thou shalt give chief honour to the 
Bishop of the first See, that is to Peter: thou shalt 
recognise on the altar the unbloody sacrifice of the 
Body and Blood of Christ: thou shalt beseech the 
blessed martyrs and all the saints to intercede with 
Christ on thy behalf : thou shalt restrain womanish 
apostates from unnatural vice and public incest: 
thou shalt do many things that thou art undoing, 


and wish undone much that thou art doing. Fur 
thermore, I promise and undertake to show, when 
opportunity offers, that the Synods of other ages, 
and notably the Synod of Trent, have been of the 
same authority and credence as the first. Armed 
therefore with the strong and choice support of 
all the Councils, why should I not enter into this 
arena with calmness and presence of mind, watch 
ful to keep an eye on my adversary and see on 
what point he will show himself? I will produce 
testimonies most evident that he cannot wrest aside. 
Possibly he will take to scolding, and endeavour 
to talk against time, but he will not elude the eyes 
and ears of men who will watch him hard, as you 
will do, if you are the men I take you for. But 
if there shall be any one found so stark mad as 
to set his single self up as a match for the senators 
of the world, men whose greatness, holiness, learn 
ing and antiquity is beyond all exception, I shall 
be glad to look upon that face of impudence ; and 
when I have shown it to you, I will leave the rest 
to your own thoughts. Meanwhile I will say thus 
much: The man who refuses consideration and 
weight to a Plenary Council, brought to a conclu 
sion in due and orderly fashion, seems to me 
witless, brainless, a dullard in theology, and a 
fool in politics. If ever the Spirit of God has 
shone upon the Church, then surely is the time for 
the sending of divine aid, when the most manifest 
religiousness, ripeness of judgment, science, wis 
dom, dignity of all the Churches on earth have 
flocked together in one city, and with employment 


of all means, divine and human, for the investi 
gation of truth, implore the promised Spirit that 
they may make wholesome and prudent decrees. 
Let there now leap to the front some mannikin 
master of an heretical faction, let him arch his 
eyebrows, turn up his nose, rub his forehead, and 
scurrilously take upon himself to judge his judges, 
what sport, what ridicule will he excite 1 There 
was found a Luther to say that he preferred to 
Councils the opinions of two godly and learned 
men (say his own and Philip Melanchthon s) when 
they agreed in the name of Christ. Oh what 
quackery 1 There was found a Kemnitz to try the 
Council of Trent by the standard of his own rude 
and giddy humour. What gained he thereby? 
Infamy. While he, unless he takes care, shall be 
buried with Arius, the Synod of Trent, the older it 
grows, shall flourish the more, day by day, and 
year by year. Good God! what variety of nations, 
what a choice assembly of Bishops of the whole 
world, what a splendid representation of Kings 
and Commonwealths, what a quintessence of theolo 
gians, what sanctity, what tears, what fears, what 
flowers of Universities, what tongues, what sub 
tlety, what labour, what infinite reading, what 
wealth of virtues and of studies filled that august 
sanctuary 1 I have myself heard Bishops, eminent 
and prudent men, and among them Antony, Arch 
bishop of Prague, by whom I was made Priest, 
exulting that they had attended such a school for 
some years; so that, much as they owed to Kaiser 
Ferdinand, they, considered that he had shown 
them no more royal and abundant bounty than this 


of sending them to sit in that Academy of Trent 
as Legates from Bohemia. The Kaiser understood 
this, and on their return he welcomed them with 
the words, " We have kept you at a good school." 
Invited as our adversaries have been under a safe 
conduct, why have they not hastened thither, pub 
licly to refute those against whom they go on 
quacking like frogs from their holes? " They broke 
their promise to Huss and Jerome," is their reply. 
Who broke it? " The Fathers of the Council of 
Constance." It is false; they never gave any 
promise. But anyhow, not even Huss would have 
been punished had not the perfidious and pesti 
lent fellow been brought back from that flight 
which the Emperor Sigusmund had forbidden him 
under pain of death; had he not violated the con 
ditions which he had agreed to in writing with 
the Kaiser and thereby nullified all the value of 
that safe-conduct. Huss s hasty wickedness 
played him false. For, having instigated deeds 
of savage violence in his native Bohemia, and being 
bidden thereupon to present himself at Constance, 
he despised the prerogative of the Council, and 
sought his safe-conduct of the Kaiser. Caesar 
signed it ; the Christian world, greater than Caesar, 
cancelled the signature. The heresiarch refused 
to return to a sound mind, and so perished. 
As for Jerome of Prague, he came to Con 
stance protected by no one; he was detected and 
arraigned; he spoke in his own behalf, was treated 
very kindly, went free whither he would; he was 
healed, abjured his heresy, relapsed, and was burnt. 
Why do they so often drag out one case in 


a thousand ? Let them read their own annals. 
Martin Luther himself, that abomination of God 
and men, was put in court at Augsburg before Car 
dinal Cajetan: there did he not belch out all he 
could, and then depart in safety, fortified with a 
letter of Maximilian? Likewise, when he was sum 
moned to Worms, and had against him the Kaiser 
and most of the Princes of the Empire, was he not 
safe under the protection of the Kaiser s word? 
Lastly, at the Diet of Augsburg, in presence of 
Charles V., an enemy of heretics, flushed with 
victory, master of the situation, did not the heads 
of the Lutherans and Zwinglians, under truce, pre 
sent their Confessions, so frequently re-edited, and 
depart in peace? Not otherwise had the letter 
from Trent provided most ample safe-guards for 
the adversary ; he would not take advantage 
of them. The fact is, he airs his condition in cor 
ners, where he expects to figure as a sage by coming 
out with three words of Greek: he shrinks from 
the light, which should place him in the number 
of men of letters \litter atoruni\ and call him to sit 
in honourable place. Let them obtain for English 
Catholics such a written promise of impunity, if 
they love the salvation of souls. We will not raise 
the instance of Huss: relying on the Sovereign s 
word, we will fly to Court. But, to return to the 
point whence I digressed, the General Councils are 
mine, the first, the last, and those between. With 
them I will fight. Let the adversary look for a 
javelin hurled with force, which he will never be 
able to pluck out. Let Satan be overthrown in 
him, and Christ live. 



At Antioch, in which city the noble surname of 
Christians first became common, there flourished 
Doctors, that is, eminent theologians, and Prophets, 
that is, very celebrated preachers (Acts xiii. i). 
Of this sort were the scribes and wise men, learned 
in the kingdom of God, bringing forth new things 
and old (Matth. xiii. 52; xxiii. 34), knowing- 
Christ and Moses, whom the Lord promised to His 
future flock. What a wicked thing it is to scout 
these teachers, given as they are by way of a mighty 
boon! The adversary has scouted them. Why? 
Because their standing means his fall. Having 
found that out for certain beyond doubt, I have 
asked for a fight unqualified, not that sham-fight 
in which the crowds in the street engage, and skir 
mish with one another, but the earnest and keen 
struggle in which we join in the arena of yon philo 

Foot to foot, and man close gripping man. 

If ever we shall be allowed to turn to the Fathers, 
the battle is lost and won : they are as thoroughly 
ours as is Gregory XIII. himself, the loving Father 
of the children of the Church. To say nothing 
of isolated passages, which are gathered from the 
records of the ancients, apt and clear statements 
in defence of our faith, we hold entire volumes of 
these Fathers, which professedly illustrate in clear 


and abundant light the Gospel religion which we 
defend. Take the twofold Hierarchy of the martyr 
Dionysius, what classes, what sacrifices, what rites 
does he teach? This fact struck Luther so forci 
bly that he pronounced the works of this Father 
to be " such stuff as dreams are made of, and that 
of the most pernicious kind." In imitation of his 
parent, an obscure Frenchman, Caussee, has not 
hesitated to call this Dionysius, the Apostle of an 
illustrious nation, " an old dotard." Ignatius has 
given grievous offence to the Centuriators of 
Magdeburg, as also to Calvin, so that these men, 
the offscouring of mankind, have noted in his works 
" unsightly blemishes and tasteless prosings." In 
their judgment, Irenaeus has brought out " a 
fanatical production " : Clement, the author of the 
Stromata, has produced "Tares and dregs ": the 
other Fathers of this age, Apostolic men to be sure, 
" have left blasphemies and monstrosities to pos 
terity." In Tertullian they eagerly seize upon what 
they have learned from us, in common with us, 
to detest ; but they should remember that his book 
On Prescriptions, which has so signally smitten the 
heretics of our times, was never found fault with. 
How finely, how clearly, has Hippolytus, Bishop 
of Porto pointed out beforehand the power of Anti 
christ, the times of Luther! They call him, th^r^- 
fore, " a most babyish writer, an owl." Cyprian, 
the delight and glory of Africa, that French critic 
Causse*e, and the Centuriators of Magdeburg, have 
termed "stupid, God-forsaken corrupter of repen 
tance," What harm has he done ? He has 


written On Virgins, On the Lapsed, On the Unity 
of the Church, such treatises as also such letters to 
Cornelius, the Roman Pontiff, that, unless credence 
be withdrawn from this Martyr, Peter Martyr Ver- 
milius and all his associates must count for worse 
than adulterers and men guilty of sacrilege. And, 
not to dwell longer on individuals, the Fathers of 
this age are all condemned " for wonderful corrup 
tion of the doctrine of repentance." How so? Be 
cause the austerity of the Canons in vogue at that 
time is particularly obnoxious to this plausible sect 
which, better fitted for dining-rooms than for 
churches, is wont to tickle voluptuous ears and to sew 
cushions on every arm (Ezech. xiii. 18). Take the 
next age, what offence has that committed? Chry- 
sostom and those Fathers, forsooth, have " foully 
obscured the justice of faith." Gregory Nazianzen 
whom the ancients called eminently " the Theo 
logian," is in the judgment of Causse*e " a chatter 
box, who did not know what he was saying." 
Ambrose was " under the spell of an evil demon." 
Jerome is " as damnable as the devil, injurious to 
the Apostle, a blasphemer, a wicked wretch." To 
Gregory Massow " Calvin alone is worth more 
than a hundred Augustines." A hundred is a small 
number : Luther " reckons nothing of having 
against him a thousand Augustines, a thousand 
Cyprians, a thousand Churches." I think I need 
not carry the matter further. For when men rage 
against the above-mentioned Fathers, who can 
wonder at the impertinence of their language 
against Optatus, Hilary, the two Cyrils, Epiphanius, 


Basil, Vincent, Fulgentius, Leo, and the Roman 
Gregory. However, if we grant any just defence 
of an unjust cause, I do not deny that the Fathers, 
wherever you light upon them, afford the party of 
our opponents matter they needs must disagree 
with, so long as they are consistent with them 
selves. Men who have appointed fast-days, how 
must they be minded in regard of Basil, Gregory 
Nazianzen, Leo, Chrysostom, who have published 
telling sermons on Lent and prescribed days of 
fasting as things already in customary use? Men 
who have sold their souls for gold, lust, drunken 
ness and ambitious display, can they be other than 
most hostile to Basil, Chrysostom, Jerome, Augus 
tine, whose excellent books are in the hands of all, 
treating of the institute, rule, and virtues of monks? 
Men who have carried the human will into cap 
tivity, who have abolished Christian funerals, who 
have burnt the relics of Saints, can they possibly be 
reconciled to Augustine, who has composed three 
books on Free Will, one on Care for the Dead, be 
sides sundry sermons and a long chapter in a noble 
work on the Miracles wrought at the Basilicas and 
Monuments of the Martyrs? Men who measure 
faith by their own quips and quirks, must they not 
be angry with Augustine, of whom there is extant 
a remarkable Letter against a Manichean, in which 
he professes himself to assent to Antiquity, to Con 
sent, to Perpetuity of Succession, and to the Church 
which, alone among so many heresies, claims by 
prescriptive right the name of Catholic? 

Optatus, Bishop of Milevis, refutes the Dona- 


tist faction by appeal to Catholic communion: he 
accuses their wickedness by appeal to the decree of 
Melchiades : he convicts their heresy by reference to 
the order of succession of Roman Pontiffs : he lays 
open their frenzy in their defilement of the Euchar 
ist and of schism : he abhors their sacrilege in their 
breaking of altars " on which the members of Christ 
are borne," and their pollution of chalices " which 
have held the blood of Christ." I greatly desire to 
know what they think of Optatus, whom Augustine 
mentions as a venerable Catholic Bishop, the equal 
of Ambrose and of Cyprian; and Fulgentius as a 
holy and faithful interpreter of Paul, like unto 
Augustine and Ambrose. They sing in their 
churches the Creed of Athanasius. Do they stand 
by him? That grave anchor who has written an 
elaborate book in praise of the Egyptian hermit 
Antony, and who with the Synod of Alexandria 
suppliantly appealed to the judgment of the Apos 
tolic See, the See of St. Peter. How often does 
Prudentius in his Hymns pray to the martyrs whose 
praises he sings ! how often at their ashes and bones 
does he venerate the King of Martyrs ! Will they 
approve his proceeding? Jerome writes against 
Vigilantius in defence of the relics of the Saints 
and the honours paid to them ; as also against Jo- 
vinian for the rank to be allowed to virginity. Will 
they endure him? Ambrose honoured his patron 
saints Gervase and Protase with a most glorious 
solemnity by way of putting the Arians to shame. 
This action of his was praised by most godly 
Fathers, and God honoured it with more than one 


miracle. Are they going to take a kindly view of 
Ambrose here? Gregory the Great, our Apostle, 
is most manifestly with us, and therefore is a hate 
ful personage to our adversaries. Calvin, in his 
rage, says that he was not brought up in the school 
of the Holy Ghost, seeing that he had called holy 
images the books of the illiterate. 

Time would fail me were I to try to count up the 
Epistles, Sermons, Homilies, Orations, Opuscula 
and dissertations of the Fathers, in which they 
have laboriously, earnestly and with much learning 
supported the doctrines of us Catholics. As long 
as these works are for sale at the booksellers shops, 
it will be vain to prohibit the writings of our con 
troversialists ; vain to keep watch at the ports and 
on the sea-coast; vain to search houses, boxes, 
desks, and book-chests; vain to set up so many 
threatening notices at the gates. No Harding, nor 
Sanders, nor Allen, nor Stapleton, nor Bristow, 
attack these new-fangled fancies with more vigour 
than do the Fathers whom I have enumerated. 
As I think over these and the like facts, my cour 
age has grown and my ardour for battle, in which 
whatever way the adversary stirs, unless he will 
yield glory to God, he will be in straits. Let him 
admit the Fathers, he is caught : let him shut them 
out, he is undone. 

When we were young men, the following inci 
dent occurred. John Jewell, a foremost champion 
of the Calvinists of England, with incredible arro 
gance challenged the Catholics at St. Paul s, Lon 
don, invoking hypocritically and calling upon the 


Fathers, who had flourished within the first six hun 
dred years of Christianity. His wager was taken 
up by the illustrious men who were then in exile at 
Louvain, hemmed in though they were with very 
great difficulties by reason of the iniquity of their 
times. I venture to assert that that device of 
Jewell s, stupid, unconscionable, shameless a.; it 
was, qualities which those writers happily brought 
out, did so much good to our countrymen that 
scarcely anything in my recollection has turned out 
to the better advantage of the suffering English 
Church. At once an edict is hung up on the doors, 
forbidding the reading or retaining of any of those 
books, whereas they had come out, or were wrung 
out, I may almost say, by the outcry that Jewell had 
raised. The result was that all the persons interested 
in the matter came to understand that the Fathers 
were Catholics, that is to say, ours. Nor has Law 
rence Humphrey passed over in silence this wound 
inflicted on him and his party. After high praise 
of Jewell in other respects, he fixes on him this role 
of inconsiderateness, that he admitted the reason 
ings of the Fathers, with whom Humphrey de 
clares, without any beating about the bush, that 
he has nothing in common nor ever will have. 

We also sounded once in familiar discourse Toby 
Matthews, now a leading preacher, whom we loved 
for his good accomplishments and the seeds of vir 
tue in him; we asked him to answer honestly 
whether one who read the Fathers assiduously 
could belong to that party which he supported. 
He answered that he could not, if, besides reading, 


he also believed them. 1 This saying is most true ; 
nor do I think that either he at the present time, 
or Matthew Hutten, a man of name, who is said to 
read the Fathers with an assiduity that few equal, 
or other adversaries who do the like, are otherwise 

Thus far I have been able to descend with secur 
ity into this field of conflict, to wage war with men, 
who, as though they held a wolf by the ears, are 
compelled to brand their cause with an everlast 
ing stigma of shame, whether they refuse the 
3? athers or whether they call for them. In the one 
case they are preparing to run away, in the other 
they are caught by the throat. 




If ever any men took to heart and made their 
special care, as men of our religion have made 
it and should make it their special care, to observe 
the rule, Search the Scriptures (John v. 39), the 
holy Fathers easily come out first and take the palm 
for the matter of this observance. By their labour 
and at their expense Bibles have been transcribed 
and carried among so many nations and tongues: 
by the perils they have run and the tortures they 

1 Cf . Newman, Lectures on Anglican Difficulties, Lect. 
xii. : " I say, then, the writings of the Fathers, so far from 
prejudicing at least one man (J.H.N.) against the modern 
Church, have been singly and solely the one intellectual 
cause of his having renounced the religion in which he was 
born and submitted himself to her." 


have endured the Sacred Volumes have been 
snatched from the flames and devastation spread 
by enemies: by their labours and vigils they have 
been explained in every detail. Night and day 
they drank in Holy Writ, from all pulpits they 
gave forth Holy Writ, with Holy Writ they en-, 
riched immense volumes, with most faithful com 
mentaries they unfolded the sense of Holy Writ, 
with Holy Writ they seasoned alike their absti 
nence and their meals, finally,occupied about Holy 
Writ they arrived at decrepit old age. And if they 
also frequently have argued from the Authority of 
Elders, from the Practice of the Church, from the 
Succession of Pontiffs, from (Ecumenical Councils, 
from Apostolic Traditions, from the Blood of Mar 
tyrs, from the decrees of Bishops, from Miracles, 
yet most persistently of all and most willingly do 
they set forth in close array the testimonies of Holy 
Writ: these they press home, on these they dwell, 
to this armour of the strong (Cant. iii. 7), for the 
best of reasons, is the first and the most honourable 
part assigned by these valiant leaders in their work 
of forgiving and keeping in repair the City of God 
against the assaults of the wicked. 

Wherefore I do all the more wonder at that 
haughty and famous objection of the adversary, 
who, like one looking for water in a running stream, 
takes exception to the lack of Scripture texts in 
writings crowded with Scripture texts. He says 
he will agree with the Fathers so long as they 
keep close to Holy Scripture. Does he mean what 
he says? I will see then that there come forth, 


armed and begirt with Christ, with Prophets and 
Apostles, and with all array of Biblical erudition, 
those celebrated authors, those ancient Fathers, 
those holy men, Dionyius, Cyprian, Athanasius, 
Basil, Nazianzen, Ambrose, Jerome, Chrysostom, 
Augustine, and the Latin Gregory. Let that faith 
reign in England, Oh that it may reign ! which 
these Fathers, dear lovers of the Scriptures, build 
up out of the Scriptures. The texts that they bring, 
we will bring: the texts they confer, we will con 
fer: what they infer, we will infer. Are you 
agreed? Out with it and say so, please. Not a 
bit of it, he says, unless they expound rightly. 
.What is this " rightly "? At your discretion. Are 
you not ashamed of the vicious circle? 

Hopeful as I am that in flourishing Universities 
there will be gathered together a good number, 
who will be no dull spectators, but acute judges 
of these controversies and who will weigh for what 
they are worth the frivolous answers of our adver 
saries, I will gladly await this meeting-day, as one 
minded to lead forth against wooded hillocks [cf . 
Cicero in Catilinam ii. 11], covered with unarmed 
tramps, the nobility and strength of the Church of 



Ancient History unveils the primitive face of the 
Church. To this I appeal. Certainly, the more 
ancient historians, whom our adversaries also 
habitually consult, are enumerated pretty well as 


follows: Eusebius, Damasus, Jerome, Rufinus, 
Orosius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, Cassiodor- 
us, Gregory of Tours, Usuard, Regino, Marianus, 
Sigebert, Zonaras, Cedrinus, Nicephorus. What 
have they to tell? The praises of our religion, its 
progress, vicissitudes, enemies. Nay, and this is 
a point I would have you observe diligently, they 
who in deadly hatred dissent from us, Melanc- 
thon, Pantaleon, Funck, the Centuriators of Magde 
burg, on applying themselves to write either the 
chronology or the history of the Church, if they 
did not get together the exploits of our heroes, 
and heap up the accounts of the frauds and crimes 
of the enemies of our Church, would pass by fif 
teen hundred years with no story to tell. 

Along with the above-mentioned consider the 
local historians, who have searched with laborious 
curiosity into the transactions of some one particu 
lar nation. These men, wishing by all means to 
enrich and adorn the Sparta which they had gotten 
for their own, and to that effect not passing over 
in silence even such things as banquets of unusual 
splendour, or sleeved tunics, or hilts of daggers, 
or gilt spurs, and other such minutiae having any 
smack of revelry about them, surely, if they had 
heard of any change in religion, or any falling off 
from the standard of early ages, would have re 
lated it, many of them; or, if not many, at least 
several; if not several, some one anyhow. Not 
one, well-disposed or ill-disposed towards us, has 
related anything of the sort, or even dropped the 
slightest hint of the same. 


For example. Our adversaries grant us, they 
cannot do otherwise, that the Roman Church was 
at one time holy, Catholic, Apostolic, at the 
time when it deserved these eulogiums from St. 
Paul : Your faith is spoken of in the whole world. 
Without ceasing 1 make a commemoration of you. 
I know that when I come to you, I shall come in 
the abundance of the blessing of Christ. All the 
Churches of Christ salute you. Your obedience is 
published in every place (Rom. i. 8, 9; xv. 29; 
xvi. 17, 19): at the time when Paul, being kept 
there in free custody, was spreading the gospel 
(Acts xxviii. 31): at the time when Peter once 
in that city was ruling the Church gathered at 
Babylon (i Peter v. 13): at the time when that 
Clement, so singularly praised by the Apostle 
(Phil. iv. 3) was governing the Church: at the 
time when the pagan Caesars, Nero, Domitian, 
Trajan, Antoninus, were butchering the Roman 
Pontiffs: also at the time when, as even Calvin 
bears witness, Damasus, Siricius, Anastasius and 
Innocent guided the Apostolic bark. For at this 
epoch he generously allows that men, at Rome par 
ticularly, had so far not swerved from Gospel 
teaching. When then did Rome lose this faith 
so highly celebrated? when did she cease to be 
what she was before? at what time, under what 
Pontiff, by what way, by what compulsion, by what 
increments, did a foreign religion come to pervade 
city and world? What outcries, what disturbances, 
what lamentations did it provoke? Were all man 
kind all over the rest of the world lulled to sleep, 


while Rome, Rome I say, was forging new Sacra 
ments, a new Sacrifice, new religious dogma? Has 
there been found no historian, neither Greek nor 
Latin, neither far nor near, to fling out in his chro 
nicles even an obscure hint of so remarkable a 

Therefore this much is clear, that the articles 
of our belief are what History, manifold and 
various, History the messenger of antiquity, and 
life of memory, utters and repeats in abundance; 
while no narrative penned in human times records 
that the doctrines foisted in by our opponents ever 
had any footing in the Church. It is clear, I say, 
that the historians are mine, and that the adver 
sary s raids upon history are utterly without point. 
No impression can they make unless the assertion 
be first received, that all Christians of all ages had 
lapsed into gross infidelity and gone down to the 
abyss of hell, until such time as Luther entered 
into an unblessed union with Catherine Bora. 



For myself, most excellent Sirs, when, choosing 
out of many heresies, I think over in my mind 
certain portentous errors of self-opinionated men., 
errors that it will be incumbent on me to refute, 
I should condemn myself of want of spirit and 
discernment if in this trial of strength I were to 
be afraid of any man s ability or powers. Let 
him be able, let him be eloquent, let him be a prac- 


tised disputant, let him be a devourer of all books, 
still his thought must dry up and his utterance fail 
him when he shall have to maintain such impossible 
positions as these. For we shall dispute, if per 
chance they will allow us, on God, on Christ, on 
Man, on Sin, on Justice, on Sacraments, on Morals. 
I shall see whether they will dare to speak out 
what they think, and what under the constraint 
of their situation they publish in their miserable 
writings. I will take care that they know these 
maxims of their teachers : " God is the author and 
cause of evil, willing it, suggesting it, effecting 
it, commanding it, working it out, and guiding the 
guilty counsels of the wicked to this end. As the 
call of Paul, so the adultery of David, and the 
wickedness of the traitor Judas, was God s own 
work" (Calvin, Institut. i. 18; ii. 4; iii. 23, 24). 
This monstrous doctrine, of which Philip Melanch- 
thon was for once ashamed, Luther however, of 
whom Philip had learned it, extols as an oracle 
from heaven with wonderful praises, and on that 
score puts his foster-child all but on an equality 
with the Apostle Paul (Luther, De servo arbitrio}. 
I will also enquire what was in Luther s mind, 
whom the English Calvinists pronounce to be "a 
man given of God for the enlightenment of the 
world," when he wished to take this versicle out of 
the Church s prayers, " Holy Trinity, one God, have 
mercy on us." 

I will proceed to the person of Christ. I will 
ask what these words, " Christ the Son of God, God 
of God," mean to Calvin, who says, " God of Him- 


self " (Instil, i. 13) ; or to Beza, who says, " He 
is not begotten of the essence of the Father " (Beza 
in Josue, nn. 23, 24). Again. Let there be set 
up two hypostate unions in Christ, one of His soul 
with His flesh, the other of His Divinity with His 
Humanity (Beza, Contra Schmidel). The passage 
in John x. 30, I and the Father are one, does not 
show Christ to be God, consubstantial with God the 
Father (Calvin on John x.), the fact is, says Luther, \ 
" my soul^ hates this word, homousion" Go on. 
Christ wasliot perfect in grace FrorrTHis infancy, 
but grew in gifts of the soul like other men, and 
by experience daily became wiser, so that as a little 
child He laboured under ignorance (Melanchthon 
on the gospel for first Sunday after Epiphany). 
Which is as much as to say that He was defiled 
with the stain and vice of original sin. But observe 
still more direful utterances. When Christ, pray 
ing in the Garden, was streaming with a sweat of 
water and blood, He shuddered under a sense of 
eternal damnation, He uttered an irrational cry, 
an unspiritual cry, a sudden cry prompted by the 
force of His distress, which He quickly checked 
as not sufficiently premeditated (Marlorati in 
Matth. xxvi. ; Calvin in Harm. Evangel.}. Is there 
anything further? Attend. When Christ Cruci 
fied exclaimed, My God, my God, why hast Thou 
forsaken me, He was on fire with the flames of y 
hell, He uttered a cry of despair, He felt exactly 
as if nothing were before Him but to perish in 
everlasting death (Calvin in Harm. Evangel. ]. To 
this also let them add something, if they can. 


Christ, they say, descended into hell, that is, when 
dead, He tasted hell not otherwise than do the 
damned souls, except that He was destined to be 
restored to Himself: for since by His mere bodily 
death He would have profited us nothing, He 
needed in soul also to struggle with everlasting 
death, and in this way to pay the debt of our 
crime and our punishment. And lest any one might 
haply suspect that this theory had stolen upon Cal 
vin unawares, the same Calvin calls all of you who 
have repelled this doctrine, full as it is of comfort, 
God-forsaken boobies (Institut. ii. 16). Times, 
times, what a monster you have reared! That 
delicate and royal Blood, which ran in a flood from 
the lacerated and torn Body of the innocent Lamb, 
one little drop of which Blood, for the dignity of 
the Victim, might have redeemed a thousand 
worlds, availed the human race nothing, unless the 
mediator of God and men, the man Christ Jesus 
(i Tim. ii. 5) had borne also the second death 
(Apoc. xx. 6), the death of the soul, the death 
to grace, that accompaniment only of sin and dam 
nable blasphemy! In comparison with this in 
sanity, Bucer, impudent fellow that he is, will ap 
pear modest, for he (on Matth. xxvi.), by an ex 
planation very preposterous, or rather, an inept and 
stupid tautology, takes hell in the creed to mean 
the tomb. Of the Anglican sectaries, some are 
wont to adhere to their idol, Calvin, others to their 
great master, Bucer; some also murmur in an un 
dertone against this article, wishing that it may 
be quietly removed altogether from the Creed, that 


it may give no more trouble. Nay, this was ac 
tually tried in a meeting at London, as I remember 
being told by one who was present, Richard Cheyne, 
a miserable old man, who was badly mauled by 
robbers outside, and, for all that, never entered 
his father s house. 1 

And thus far of Christ. What of Man? The 
image of God is utterly blotted out in man, not 
the slightest spark of good is left: his whole 
nature in all the parts of his soul is so thoroughly 
overturned that, even after he is born again and 
sanctified in baptism, there is nothing whatever 
within him but mere corruption and contagion. 
What does this lead up to? That they who mean to 
seize glory by faith alone may wallow in the filth 
of every turpitude, may accuse nature, despair of 
virtue, and discharge themselves of the command 
ments (Calvin, Instit. ii. 3). To this, Illyricus, the 
standard-bearer of the Magdeburg company, has 
added his own monstrous teaching about original 
sin, which he makes out to be the innermost sub 
stance of souls, whom, since Adam s fall, the devil 
himself engenders and transforms into himself. This 
also is a received maxim in this scum of evil doc 
trine, that all sins are equal, yet with this qualifica 
tion (not to revive the Stoics), " if sins are weighed 
in the judgment of God." As if God, the most 
equitable Judge, were to add to our burden rather 
than lighten it; and, for all His justice, were to 

1 Richard Cheyne, Anglican bishop of Gloucester, to whom 
there is extant a letter from Campion, dated I November, 


exaggerate and make it what it is not in itself. By 
this estimation, as heavy an offence would be com 
mitted against God, judging in all severity, by the 
innkeeper who has killed a barn-door cock, when 
he should not have done, as by that infamous as 
sassin who, his head full of Beza, stealthily slew by 
the shot of a musket the French hero, the Duke, 
of Guise, a Prince of admirable virtue, than which 
crime our world has seen in our age nothing more 
deadly, nothing more lamentable. 

But perchance they who are so severe in the 
matter of sin philosophise magnificently on divine 
grace, as able to bring succour and remedy to this 
evil. Fine indeed is the function which they assign 
to grace, which their ranting preachers say is 
neither infused into our hearts, nor strong enough 
to resist sin, but lies wholly outside of us, and 
consists in the mere favour of God, a favour which 
does not amend the wicked, nor cleanse, nor illu 
minate, nor enrich them, but, leaving still the old 
stinking ordure of their sin, dissembles it by God s 
connivance, that it be not counted unsightly and 
hateful. And with this their invention they are 
so delighted that, with them, even Christ is not 
otherwise called full of grace and truth than inas 
much as God the Father has borne wonderful 
favour to Him (Bucer on John i. : Brent horn. 12 
on John). 

What sort of thing then is righteousness? A 
relation. It is not made up of faith, hope and 
charity, vesting the soul in their splendour; it is 
only a hiding away of guilt, such that, whoever 


has seized upon this righteousness by faith alone, 
he is as sure of salvation as though he were already 
enjoying the unending joy of heaven. Well, let 
this dream pass : but how can one be sure of future 
perseverance, in the absence of which a man s exit 
would be most miserable, though for a time he had 
observed righteousness purely and piously? Nay, 
says Calvin (Instil, iii. 2), unless this your faith 
foretells you your perseverance assuredly, without 
possibility of hallucination, it must be cast aside 
as vain and feeble. I recognise the disciple of 
Luther. A Christian, said Luther (De captivitate 
Babylonis}, cannot lose his salvation, even if he 
wanted, except by refusing to believe. 

I hasten to pass on to the Sacraments. None, 
none, not two, not one, O holy Christ, have they 
left. Their bread is poison; and as for their 
baptism, though it is still true baptism, never 
theless in their judgment it is nothing, it is 
not a wave of salvation, it is not a channel of 
grace, it does not apply to us the merits of Christ, 
it is a mere token of salvation (Calvin, Instit. iv. 
15). Thus they have made no more of the bap 
tism of Christ, so far as the nature of the thing 
goes, than of the ceremony of John. If you have 
it, it is well; if you go without it, there is no 
loss suffered; believe, you are saved, before you 
are washed. What then of infants, who, unless 
they are aided by the virtue of the Sacrament, 
poor little things, gain nothing by any faith of 
their own? Rather than allow anything to the Sac 
rament of baptism, say the Magdeburg Centuria- 


tors (Cent. v. 4), let us grant that there is faith 
in the infants themselves, enough to save them; 
and that the said babies are aware of certain secret 
stirrings of this faith, albeit they are not yet aware 
whether they are alive or not. A hard nut to crack I 
If this is so very hard, listen to Luther s remedy. 
It is better, he says (Advers^ Cochl. ) ) to omit the 
baptism; since, unless the infant believes, to no 
purpose is it washed. This is what they say, doubt 
ful in mind what absolutely to affirm. Therefore 
let Balthasar Pacimontanus step in to sort the votes. 
This father of the Anabaptists, unable to assign 
to infants any stirring of faith, approved Luther s 
suggestion ; and, casting infant baptism out of the 
churches, resolved to wash at the sacred font none 
who was not grown up. For the rest of the Sacra 
ments, though that many headed beast utters many 
insults, yet, seeing that they are now of daily occur 
rence, and our ears have grown callous to them y 
I here pass them over. 

There remain the sayings of the heretics con 
cerning life and morals, the noxious goblets which 
Luther has vomited on his pages, that out of the 
filthy hovel of his one breast he might breathe 
pestilence upon his readers. Listen patiently, and 
blush, and pardon me the recital. If the wife will 
not, or cannot, let the handmaid come (Serm. de 
matrimon.}; seeing that commerce with a wife is 
as necessary to every man as food, drink, and sleep. 
Matrimony is much more excellent than virginity. 
Christ and Paul dissuaded men from virginity 
(Liber de vol. evangel.). But perhaps these doc- 


trines are peculiar to Luther. They are not. They 
have been lately defended by my friend Chark, 
but miserably and timidly. Do you wish to hear 
any more? Certainly. The more wicked you are, 
he says, the nearer you are to grace (Serm. d& 
pise. Petrt]. All good actions are sins, in God s 
judgment, mortal sins ; in God s mercy, venial. No 
one thinks evil of his own will. The Ten Com 
mandments are nothing to Christians. God cares 
nought at all about our works. They alone rightly 
partake of the Lord s Supper, who bury consciences 
sad, afflicted, troubled, confused, erring. Sins are 
to be confessed, but to anyone you like; and if 
he absolves you even in joke, provided you believe, 
you are absolved. To read the Hours of the Divine 
Office is not the function of priests, but of laymen. 
Christians are free from the enactments of men 
(Luther, De servo arbitrio, De captivitate Baby 

I think I have stirred up this puddle sufficiently. 
I now finish. Nor must you think me unfair for 
having turned my argument against Lutherans and 
Zwinglians indiscriminately. For, remembering 
their common parentage, they wish to be brothers 
and friends to one another; and they take it as a, 
grave affront, whenever any distinction is drawn 
between them in any point but one. I am not of 
consequence enough to claim for myself so much 
as an undistinguished place among the select theo 
logians who at this day have declared war on here 
sies: but this I know, that, puny as I am, I run* 
no risk while, supported by the grace of Christ, 



! I shall do battle, with the aid of heaven and earth, 
against such fabrications as these, so odious, so 
tasteless, so stupid. 


It is a shrewd saying that a one-eyed man may 
be king among the blind. With uneducated people 
a mock- proof has force which a school of philo 
sophers dismisses with scorn. Many are the 
offences of the adversary under this head; but his 
case is made out by four fallacies chiefly, fallacies 
which I would rather unravel in the University than 
in a popular audience. 

The first vice is <r/aa//,a%ta, with mighty effort 
hammering at breezes and shadows. In this way: 
against such as have sworn to celibacy and vowed 
chastity, because, while marriage is good, virginity 
is better (i Cor. vii.), Scripture texts are brought 
up speaking honourably of marriage. Whom do 
they hit? Against the merit of a Christian man, 
a merit dyed in the Blood of Christ, otherwise 
null, testimonies are alleged whereby we are bidden 
to put our trust neither in nature nor in the law, but 
in the Blood of Christ. Whom do they refute? 
Against those who worship Saints, as Christ s ser 
vants, especially acceptable to Him, whole pages 
are quoted, forbidding the worship of many gods? 
Where are these many gods? By such arguments, 
which I find in endless quantity in the writings 
of heretics, they cannot hurt us, they may bore you. 


Another vice is Xoyo/ia^a, which leaves the 
sense, and wrangles loquaciously over the word. 
Find me Mass or Purgatory in the Scriptures, they 
say. What then? Trinity, Consubstantial, Person, 
are they nowhere in the Bible, because these words 
are not found? Allied to this fault is the catching 
at letters, when, to the neglect of usage and the 
mind of the speakers, war is waged on the letters 
of the alphabet. For instance, thus they say: Pres 
byter to the Greeks means nothing else than elder; 
Sacrament, any mystery. On this, as on all other 
points, St. Thomas shrewdly observes: " In words, j 
we must look not whence they are derived, but to j 
what meaning they are put." 

The third vice is o/Aoiiw/u a, which has a very 
wide range. For example: What is the meaning 
of an Order of Priests, when John has called us 
all priests ! <(Apoc. v. 10). He has also added 
this: we shall reign upon the earth. What then is 
the use of Kings? Again: the Prophet (Isaias 
Iviii.) cries \up a spiritual fast, that is, abstinence 
from inveterate crimes. Farewell then to any dis 
cernment of meats and prescription of days. In 
deed? Mad therefore were Moses, David, Elias, 
the Baptist, the Apostles, who terminated their 
fasts in two days, three days, or in so many weeks, 
which fasting, being from sin, ought to have been 
perpetual. You have already seen what manner 
of argument this is. I hasten on. 

Added to the above is a fourth vice, Vicious 
Circle, in this way. Give me the notes, I say, 
of the Church. The word of God and unde filed 


Sacraments. Are these with you? Who can doubt 
it? I do, I deny it utterly. Consult the word of 
God. I have consulted it, and I favour you less 
than before. Ah, but it is plain. Prove it to me. 
Because we do not depart a nail s breadth from the 
word of God. Where is your persecution? Will 
you always go on taking for an argument the very 
point that is called in question? How often have 
I insisted on this already? Do wake up: do you 
want torches applied to you? I say that your ex 
position of the word of God is perverse and mis 
taken : I have fifteen centuries to bear me witness : 
stand by an opinion, not mine, nor yours, but that 
of all these ages. / will stand by the sentence of 
the word of God : the Spirit breatheth where it will 
(John iii. 8). There he is at it again; what cir 
cumvolutions, what wheels he is making 1 This 
trifler, this arch-contriver of words and sophisms, 
I know not to whom he can be formidable: tire 
some he possibly will be. His tiresomeness will 
find its corrective in your sagacity: all that was 
formidable about him facts have taken away. 



This shall be to you a straight way, so that fools 
shall not go astray in it (Isaias xxxv. 8). 

Who is there, however small and lost in the 
crowd of illiterates, that, with a desire of salvation 
and some little attention, cannot see, cannot keep 
to the path of the Church, so admirably smoothed 
out, eschewing brambles and rocks and pathless 



wastes ! For, as Isaias prophesies, this path shall 
be plain even to the uneducated; most plain there 
fore, if you choose, to you. Let us put before our 
eyes the theatre of the universe : let us wander 
everywhere : all things supply us with an argument. 
Let us go to heaven: let us contemplate roses and 
lilies, Saints empurpled with martyrdom or white 
with innocence: Roman Pontiffs, I say, three and 
thirty in a continuous line put to death: Pastors 
all the world over, who have pledged their blood 
for the name of Christ: Flocks of faithful, who 
have followed in the footsteps of their Pastors: 
all the Saints of heaven, who as shining lights in 
purity and holiness have gone before the crowd of 
mankind. You will find that these were ours when 
they lived on earth, ours when they passed away 
from this world. To cull a few instances, ours was 
that Ignatius, who in church matters put no one 
not even the Emperor, on a level with the Bishop ; 
who committed to writing, that they might not be 
lost, certain Apostolic traditions of which he him 
self had been witness. Ours was that anchoret 
Telesphorus, who ordered the more strict obser 
vance of the fast of Lent established by the 
Apostles. Ours was Irenaeus, who declared the- 
Apostolic faith by the Roman succession and chair 
(lib. iii. cap. 3). Ours was Pope Victor, who by 
an edict brought to order the whole of Asia; and 
though this proceeding seemed to some minds, and 
even to that holy man Irenaeus, somewhat harsh, 
yet no one made light of it as coming from a for 
eign power. Ours was Polycarp, who went to Rome 
on the question of Easter, whose burnt relics 


Smyrna gathered, and honoured her Bishop with 
an anniversary feast and appointed ceremony. 
Ours were Cornelius and Cyprian, a golden pair 
of Martyrs, both great Bishops, but greater he, the 
Roman, who had rescinded the African error; 
while the latter was ennobled by the obedience 
which he paid to the elder, his very dear friend. 
Ours was Sixtus, to whom, as he offered solemn 
sacrifice at the altar, seven men of the clergy 
ministered. Ours was his Archdeacon Lawrence, 
whom the adversaries cast out of their calendar, 
to whom, twelve hundred years ago, the Consular 
man Prudentius thus prayed: 

What is the power entrusted thee, 
And how great function is given thee, 
The joyful thanks of Roman citizens prove, 
To whom thou grantest their petitions. 
Among them, O glory of Christ, 
Hear also a rustic poet, 
| Confessing the crimes of his heart 
And publishing his doings. 
Hear bountifully the supplication 
Of Christ s culprit Prudentius. 

Ours are those highly-blest maids, Cecily, Agatha, 
Anastasia, Barbara, Agnes, Lucy, Dorothy, Cath 
erine, who held fast against the violent assault of 
men and devils the virginity they had resolved 
upon. Ours was Helen, celebrated for the finding 
of the Lord s Cross. Ours was Monica, who 
in death most piously begged prayers and sacri 
fices to be offered for her at the altar of Christ. 
Ours was Paula, who, leaving her City palace and 
her rich estates, hastened on a long journey a pil- 


grim to the cave at Bethlehem, to hide herself by 
the cradle of the Infant Christ. Ours were Paul, 
Hilarion, Antony, those dear ancient solitaries. 
Ours was Satyrus, own brother to Ambrose, who, 
when shipwrecked, jumped into the ocean, carrying 
about his neck in a napkin the Sacred Host, and 
full of faith swam to shore {Ambrose, Oral. fun. 
de Satyro] . 

Ours are the Bishops Martin and Nicholas, ex 
ercised in watchings, clad in the military garb of 
hair cloths, fed with fasts. Ours is Benedict, 
father of so many monks. I should not run 
through their thousands in ten years. But neither 
do I set down those whom I mentioned before 
among the Doctors of the Church. I am mindful 
of the brevity imposed upon me. Whoever wills, 
may seek these further details, not only from the 
copious histories of the ancients, but even much 
more from the grave authors who have bequeathed 
to memory almost one man one Saint. Let 
the reader report to me his judgment concerning 
those ancient blessed Christians, to what doctrine 
they adhered, the Catholic or the Lutheran. I call 
to witness the throne of God, and that Tribunal at 
which I shall stand to render reason for these 
Reasons, of everything I have said and done, that 
either there is no heaven at all, or heaven belongs 
to our people. The former position we abhor, we 
fix therefore upon the latter. 

low contrariwise, if you please, let us look into 
hell. There are burnt with everlasting fire, who? 
The Jews. On what Church have they turned their 
backs? On ours. Who again? The heathen. 


What Church have they most cruelly persecuted? 
Ours. Who again? The Turks. What temples 
have they destroyed? Ours. Who once more? 
Heretics. Against what Church are they in rebel 
lion? Against ours. What Church but ours has 
opposed itself against all the gates of hell? When, 
after the driving away of the Hebrews, Christian 
inhabitants began to multiply at Jerusalem, what 
a concourse of men there was to the Holy Places, 
what veneration attached to the City, to the 
Sepulchre, to the Manger, to the Cross, to all the 
memorials in which the Church delights as a wife 
in what has been worn by her husband. Hence 
arose against us the hatred of the Jews, cruel and 
implacable. Even now they complain that our an 
cestors were the ruin of their ancestors. From 
Simon Magus and the Lutherans they have received 
no wound. Among the heathen, they were the most 
violent who, throughout the Roman Empire, for 
three hundred years, at intervals of time, contrived 
most painful punishments for Christians. What 
Christians? The fathers and children of our faith. 
Learn the language of the tyrant who roasted St. 
Lawrence on the gridiron: 

That this is of your rites 
The custom and practice, it has been handed 

down to memory : 

This the discipline of the institution, 
That priests pour libations from golden cups. 

In silver goblets they say 
That the sacred blood smokes; 
And that in golden candlestick, at the nightly 

There stand fixed waxen candles. 


Then is it the chief care of the brethren, 
As many-tongued report does testify, 
To offer from the sale of estates, 
Thousands of pence. 

Ancestral property made over 
To dishonest auctions, 
The disinherited successor groans, 
Needy child of holy parents. 

These treasures are concealed in secret, 
In corners of the churches ; 
And it is believed the height of piety 
To strip your sweet children. 

Bring out your treasures, 
Which by evil arts of persuasion 
You have heaped up and hold, 
Which you shut up in darkling cave. 

Public utility demands this, 
The privy purse demands it, the treasury de 
mands it, 

That the soldiers may be paid for their services, 
And the commander may benefit thereby. 

This is your dogma, then : 
Give every man his own. 
Now Caesar recognises his own 
Image, stamped on the coin. 

What you know to be Caesar s, to Caesar 
Give; surely what I ask is just. 
If I am not mistaken, your Deity 
Coins no money, 

Nor when he came did he bring 
Golden Jacobuses 1 with him; 

But he gave his precepts in words, 
Empty in point of pocket. 

Fulfil the promise of the words 
Which you sell the round world over. 
Give up your hard cash willingly, 
Be rich in words. 

(Prudentius, Hymn on St. Lawrence). 
1 The Latin is Philippos. 


Whom does this speaker resemble. Against 
whom does he rage? What Church is it whose 
sacred vessels, lamps, and ornaments he is pillag 
ing, whose ritual he overthrows? Whose golden 
patens and silver chalices, sumptuous votive offer 
ings and rich treasure, does he envy? Why, the 
man is a Lutheran all over. With what other cloak 
did our Nimrods 1 cover their brigandage, when 
they embezzled the money of their Churches 
and wasted the patrimony of Christ? Take on the 
contrary Constantine the Great, that scourge of the 
persecutors of Christ, to what Church did he 
restore tranquillity? To that Church over which 
Pope Silvester presided, whom he summoned from 
his hiding-place on Mount Soracte that by his 
ministry he might receive our baptism. Under 
what auspices was he victorious? Under the sign 
of the cross. Of what mother was he the glorious 
son? Of Helen. To what Fathers did he attach 
himself? To the Fathers of Nice. What manner 
of men were they? Such men as Silvester, Mark, 
Julius, Athanasius, Nicholas. What seat did he 
ask for in the Synod? The last. Oh how much 
more kingly was he on that seat than the Kings 
who have ambitioned a title not due to them ! It 
would be tedious to go into further details. But 
from these two [Emperors, Decius and Constantine], 
the one our deadly enemy, the other our warm 
friend, it may be left to the reader s conjecture 

1 Seems to refer to the first Protestant bishops, mighty 
hunters (Genesis x. 9) after place, and : , to secure it, all 
too ready to alienate the manors and possessions of their see. 


to fix on points of closest resemblance to the one 
and to the other in the history of our own times 
For as it was our cause that went through its agony 
under Decius, so our cause it was that came out 
^triumphant under Constantine. 1 
V,Let us look at the doings of the Turks. Ma 
homet and the apostate monk Sergius lie in the 
deep abyss, howling, laden with their own crimes 
and with those of their posterity. This portentous 
and savage monster, the power of the Saracens and 
the Turks, had it not been clipped and checked 
by our Military Orders, our Princes and Peoples, 
so far as Luther was concerned (to whom Solyman 
the Turk is said to have written a letter of thanks 
on this account), and so far as the Lutheran Princes 
were concerned (by whom the progress of the 
Turks is reckoned matter of joy), this frantic and 
man- destroying Fury, I say, by this time would be 
depopulating and devastating all Europe, overturn 
ing altars and signs of the cross as zealously as Cal 
vin himself. Ours therefore they are, our proper 
foes, seeing that by the industry of our champions 
it was that their fangs were unfastened from the 
throats of Christians. 

Let us look down on heretics, the filth and fans 

1 I have here paraphrased, as any literal translation would 
have been hopelessly obscure to most modern readers. Cam 
pion could but hint darkly his comparison of the Elizabethan 
persecution to the Decian. The Latin runs: Etenim, ut 
nostrorum ilia fuit Epistasis turbulent a, sic nostrorum haec 
evasit divina Catastrophe. Epistasis is "the part of the 
play where the plot thickens " (Liddell and Scott). Catas 
trophe is " the turn of the plot " (Id.). 


and fuel of hell 1 the first that meets our gaze is 
Simon Magus. What did he do? He endeavoured 
to snatch away free will from man: he prated of 
faith alone (Clen. lib. i. recog. ; Iren. 1. i, c. 2). 
After him, Novatian. Who was he? An Anti- 
pope, rival to the Roman Pontiff Cornelius, an 
enemy of the Sacraments, of Penance and Chrism. 
Then Manes the Persian. He taught that baptism 
did not confer salvation. After him the Arian 
Aerius. He condemned prayers for the dead: he 
confounded priests with bishops, and was surnamed 
" the atheist " no less than Lucian. There follows 
Vigilantius, who would not have the Saints prayed 
to; and Jovinian, who put marriage on a level 
with virginity; finally, a whole mess of nastiness, 
Macedonius, Pelagius, Nestorius, Eutyches, the 
Monothelites, the Iconoclasts, to whom posterity 
will aggregate Luther and Calvin. What of them? 
All black crows, 2 born of the same egg, they re 
volted from the Prelates of our Church, and by 
them were rejected and made void. 

Let us leave the lower regions and return to 
earth. Wherever I cast my eyes and turn my 
thoughts, whether I regard the Patriarchates and 
the Apostolic Sees, or the Bishops of other lands, 
or meritorious Princes, Kings, and Emperors, or 
the origin of Christianity in any nation, or any 
evidence of antiquity, or light of reason, or beauty 
of virtue, all things serve and support our faith. 
I call to witness the Roman Succession, in which 

1 Faeces et folks et alumenta gehennae. 

2 Mali corvi. 


Church, to speak with Augustine (Ep. 162: Doctr. 
Christ, ii. 8), the Primacy of the Apostolic Chair 
has ever flourished. I call to witness those other 
Apostolic Sees, to which this name eminently be 
longs, because they were erected by the Apostles 
themselves, or by their immediate disciples. I call 
to witness the Pastors of the nations, separate in 
place, but united in our religion: Ignatius and 
Chrysostom at Antioch ; Peter, Alexander, Athana- 
sius, Theophilus, at Alexandria; Macarius and 
Cyril at Jerusalem; Proclus at Constantinople; 
Gregory and Basil in Cappadocia; Thauma- 
turgus in Pontus; at Smyrna Polycarp; Justin 
at Athens; Dionysius at Corinth; Gregory at 
Nyssa; Methodius at Tyre; Ephrem in Syria; 
Cyprian, Optatus, Augustine, in Africa; Epi- 
phanius in Cyprus; Andrew in Crete; Ambrose, 
Paulinus, Gaudentius, Prosper, Faustus, Vigilius, 
in Italy; Irenaeus, Martin, Hilary, Eucherius, Gre 
gory, Salvianus, in Gaul; Vincentus, Orosius, Ilde- 
phonsus, Leander, Isidore, in Spain; in Britain, 
Fugatius, Damian, Justus, Mellitus, Bede. 
Finally, not to appear to be making a vain dis 
play of names, whatever works, or fragments of 
works, are still extant of those who sowed the Gos 
pel seed in distant lands, all exhibit to us one faith, 
that which we Catholics profess to-day. O Christ, 
what cause can I allege to Thee why Thou shouldst 
not banish me from Thine own, if to so many lights 
of the Church I should have preferred mannikins, 
dwellers in darkness, few, unlearned, split into 
sects, and of bad moral character 1 


I call to witness likewise Princes, Kings, Emper 
ors, and their Commonwealths, whose own piety, 
and the people of their realms, and their estab 
lished discipline in war and peace, were altogether 
founded on this our Catholic doctrine. What 
Theodosiuses here might I summon from the East, 
what Charleses from the West, what Edwards from 
England, what Louises from France, what Her- 
menegilds from Spain, Henries from Saxony, Wen- 
ceslauses from Bohemia, Leopolds from Austria, 
Stephens from Hungary, Josaphats from India, 
Dukes and Counts from all the world over, who 
by example, by arms, by laws, by loving care, by 
outlay of money, have nourished our Church ! For 
so Isaias foretold : 

fathers, and queens thy nurses (Isaias xlix. 23). 

Listen, Elizabeth, most powerful Queen, for 
thee this great prophet utters this prophecy, and 
therein teaches thee thy part. I tell thee: one and 
the same heaven cannot hold Calvin and the Princes 
whom I have named. With these Princes then 
associate thyself, and so make thee worthy of 
thy ancestors, worthy of thy genius, worthy of thy 
excellence in letters, worthy of thy praises, worthy 
of thy fortune. To this effect alone do I labour 
about thy person, and will labour, whatever shall 
become of me, for whom these adversaries so often 
augur the gallows, as though I were an enemy of 
thy life. Hail, good Cross. There will come, 
Elizabeth, the day, that day which will show thee 
clearly which have loved thee, the Society of Jesus 
or the offspring of Luther. 


I proceed. I call to witness all the coasts and 
regions of the world, to which the Gospel trumpet 
has sounded since the birth of Christ. Was this a 
little thing, to close the mouth of idols and carry; 
the kingdom of God to the nations? Of Christ 
Luther speaks: we Catholics speak of Christ. /s 
Christ divided ? (i Cor. i. 13). By no means. 
Either we speak of a false Christ or he does. What 
then? I will say. Let Him be Christ, and belong 
to them, at whose coming in Dagon broke his neck. 
Our Christ was pleased to use the services of our 
men, when He banished from the hearts of so many 
peoples Jupiters, Mercuries, Dianas, Phoebades, 
and that black night and sad Erebus of ages. 
There is too leisure to search afar off, let us examine 
only neighbouring and domestic history. The 
Irish imbibed from Patrick, the Scots from Palla- 
dius, the English from Augustine, men consecrated 
at Rome, sent from Rome, venerating Rome, either 
no faith at all or assuredly our faith, the Catholic 
faith. The case is clear. I hurry on. 

Witness Universities, witness tables of laws, wit-^\ 
ness the domestic habits of men, witness the elec- 1 , . 
tion and inauguration of Emperors, witness the / ^,^ 
coronation rites and anointing of Kings, witness L JTj~ 
the Orders of Knighthood and their very mantles, Cq 
witness windows, witness coins, witness city gates 
and city houses, witness the labours and life of our 
ancestors, witness all things great and small, that 
no religion in the world but ours ever took deep 
root there. 

These considerations being at hand to me, and 


so affecting me as I thought them over that it 
seemed the part of insolence, nay of insanity, to 
renounce all this Christian company and consort 
with the most abandoned of men, I confess, I felt 
animated and fired to the conflict, a conflict wherein 
I can never be worsted until it comes to the Saints 
being hurled from heaven and the proud Lucifer 
recovering heaven. Therefore let Chark, who re 
viles me so outrageously, be in better conceit with 
me, if I have preferred to trust this poor sinful 
soul of mine, which Christ has bought so dearly, 
rather to a safe way, a sure way, a royal road, than 
to Calvin s rocks or woodland thickets, there to 
hang caught in uncertainty. 


You have from me, Gentlemen of the University, 
this little present, put together by, the labour of 
such leisure as I could snatch on the road. My 
purpose was to clear myself in your judgment of 
the charge of arrogance, and to show just cause for 
my confidence, and meanwhile, until such time as 
along with me you are invited by the adversaries 
to the disputations in the Schools, to give you a 
sort of foretaste of what is to come there. If you 
think it a just, safe, and virtuous choice for Luther 
or Calvin to be taken for the Canon of Scripture, 
the Mind of the Holy Ghost, the Standard of the 
Church, the Pedagogue of Councils and Fathers, 
in short, the God of all witnesses and ages, I have 
nothing to hope of your reading or hearing me. 


But if you are such as I have pictured you in my; 
mind, philosophers, keen- sighted, lovers of the 
truth, of simplicity, of modesty, enemies of te 
merity, of trifles and sophisms, you will easily see 
daylight in the open air, seeing that you already see 
the peep of day through a narrow chink. I will 
say freely what my love of you, and your danger, 
and the importance of the matter requires. The 
devil is not unaware that you will see this light of 
day, if ever you raise your eyes to it. For what a 
piece of stupidity it would be to prefer Hanmers 
and Charks to Christian antiquity! But there are 
certain Lutheran enticements whereby the devil ex 
tends his kingdom, delicate snares whereby that 
hooker of men has caught with his baits already 
many of your rank and station. What are they! 
Gold, glory, pleasures, lusts. Despise them. What 
are they but bowels of earth, high-sounding air, 
a banquet of worms, fair dunghills. Scorn them. 
Christ is rich, who will maintain you : He is a King, 
who will provide you: He is a sumptuous enter 
tainer, who will feast you; He is beautiful, who 
will give in abundance all that can make you happy. 
Enrol yourselves in His service, that with Him you 
may gain triumphs, and show yourselves men truly 
most learned, truly most illustrious. Farewell. At 
Cosmopolis, City of all the world, 1581. 



Cairpion, Edmund 
Ten reasons.